Dr. Stanislaw Sterkowicz
Head of Department of Combat Sports at Academy of Physical Education in Krakow, Poland
- Typical Traumas and General Indications for Motor Rehabilitation of Judoka
- Results of Competition and Characteristics of Judo Fights Performed During the Olympic Games in Seoul 1988 and in Barcelona in 1992
- Analysis Method for Fight Tactics in Judo
- Motivation of Females and Males Practicing Judo
- The Special Judo Fitness Test
- The Technical and Tactical Preparation of Men and Women Judoka
- Changeable Motivation in Training Cycle of Judoists
- Differences of Training Between Women and Men Judoka
- Causes of Emotion in Individual Sports (Gymnastics and Judo)
- Communication of Teachers with Students in the Training of the ABC of Judo.
- Summary of “Ju-jitsu: Selected Aspects of Defensive Martial Art”
- A Comparison of Women’s and Men’s Technical Education at Judo Tournament
- Description of Activity of the Participants of the First International Women’s Judo Tournament in Poland
Typical Traumas and General Indications for Motor Rehabilitation of Judoka
Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Wojciech Rukasz
The objective of the present research work was to determine the frequency, type, and the localization of the body injuries in contestants with various sporting achievements that influence the process of rehabilitation and training individualization. 547 accidents (563 various body injuries) of 6468 contestants from 22 towns have been considered in a four-year-long retrospective analysis with the use of the method of compiling data taken from the Polish National Insurance and Polish Judo Union. There were 59 victims in the first or championship class with the highest sporting skills in group A. The remainder formed group B. The mean age of the victims was 17,7. 44% of accidents resulted in full disability to work or study that lasted from one to two months. 89 sportsmen (16%) required hospitalization. 102 judoka had many accidents (twice or five times). Permanent disability (1-9%) was the result of 274 accidents (51%), whereas disability (10-39%) was due to 119 accidents (35%). Relative risk assessment (Reginato A.F. were compared) and accident repeatability occurring in the case of the same individuals showed that group with higher sporting skills is particularly accident-prone (relative risk A/B = 8,2). With regard to typical traumas, there was a characteristic difference between group A and B in terms of the type and localization of body injuries. While distorsio articulationis genus (32%), luxatio articulationis acromioclavicularis (10,2%), and distorsio articulationis acromioclavicularis (8,5%) were the most common in group A, fractura claviculae (22,7%), fractura osis antebrachi (12,9%), and fractura osis humeri (9,0%) predominated in group B. The mechanism of accidents was analyzed in the discussion with emphasizes that routine post-trauma rehabilitation procedures restore sportsmen to fitness only to some degree.
From the trainer’s perspective, it has been suggested that it is necessary and indispensable to individualize and modify the training course procedures of the judoka who has had accidents. One criterion of the ability to compete should be the scores in the special physical fitness test with Seoi Nage throws.
Results of Competition and Characteristics of Ways of Judo Fights Performed During the Olympic Games in Seoul 1988 and in Barcelona in 1992
Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Ireneusz Kiejda
This paper aimed at comparing the effects of competition in judo as well as of judo fight techniques observed during the Olympic Games in Seoul and Barcelona.
The analysis was based on official documents drawn during the contests. That analysis allowed to define the strength of particular national teams in world judo and to learn about appeating trends in judo coaching. The results pointed to the need of increasing the intensity of fight and applying a wider variety of technical elements. In particular classification Kodokan groups such ways of attack as: (a) Kuchiki-taoshi (hand technique), (b) Tani-otoshi (technique with a fall), (c) O-soto-gari (leg technique), were qualified as effective.
Analysis Method for Fight Tactics in Judo
Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Jacek Koziol
This paper aimed at verifying a hypothetical algorithm of an effective fight. The examination of fights recorded on video tapes were conducted together with Polish judoists what led to conclusions that certain actions were particular importance.These were: (a)making out the opponent’s intentions, (b) the actual attack. Performing the attack led to hampering the opponent’s activity, but in the same time, it was essential for the final result of a given fight to conceal our judoist’s intentions.
The sequence and duration time for the five algorithm steps of the won fight were determined. Owing to the applied analytical method for the competitors activity it was possible to define an individual tactics as well as trends for training programmes for top judoists.
Motivation of Females and Males Practicing Judo
The aim of this study was to examine the motivation of individuals who had been practicing judo for several years and had reached various levels of performance in this discipline of sport. Fifty women and 50 men, who present varying levels of ability, but all at a championship level, were surveyed by the Terry and Fowles motivation questionnaire. Due to intergroup comparisons it has been found that:
- motivation profiles of females and males practicing judo are highly similar especially with those who do not have great sport achievements;
- high level of motivation elements, especially “Health & Fitness” participation motive, was characteristic for females disregarding their sport performance;
- aiming at perfection and excellence i.e. dominant element “Excellence”, has been observed in males having great sport achievements (Polish national or international championships. Aiming at domination and subordination of others (Aggression element) was greater among males than females and in both groups was related to their level of sport performance.
The Special Judo Fitness Test
The purpose of this paper was to prove whether or not the test on special physical fitness in judo is useful in the individual diagnosis of judoka and in predicting their achievements in sports competition. The examinations carried out on twenty judoists of the Wisla Sports Association confirmed the high reliability and validity of this test.. A number of statistical correlations between parameter characterizing the level of sports mastery and mopho-functional predispositions indicated the special importance of anaerobic efficiency.
The results were discussed taking into account the research on this test conducted at The Combat Sports Department since 1985 along with the data collected from the literature.
The Technical and Tactical Preparation of Men and Women Judoka
Stanislaw Sterkowicz and Marian Kesek
During all-Polish Men and Women’s judo contest some symplified symbols of judo techniques weere employed to record: the type of technique used, its direction and score value, the connecting of various techniques into effective combinations as well as counterattacks and unsuccessful attempts of attack.
On the basis of 8.375 attacks recorded in 1.234 bouts it was discovered which techniques are preferred by women abd which by men. The level and importance of the basic parameters of technical and tactical preparation for success in judo combat were also evaluated. The theoretical model rthus created from the individual characteristics of the medal winners and the combat regularities described may be used by the instructors to improve the training process in judo clubs. Furthemore, the parameters of technical and tactical pparation of Polish leading judoka were presented in this paper against the background of the characteristics of the Olympic champions of this sport.
Changeable Motivation in Training Cycle of Judoists
The aim of this article was an evaluation of dynamics of the participation motives in judo training cycle. In four repetitive researches the Q-sort technique for the election of 76 questions from Pilojan’s test was used. There were participated nine Polish top-class judoists in the examination.
Among other findings in period of preparation the motives influenced specific motor skills and perception as well as information about possible opponent were very important for competitors. However immediately prior to Polish Championships predominated mental factors, which sharply decreased in transition period of training cycle. In addition, we found out relations not only between the motives, but their contribution to level of achievements in judo competition, too.
Differences of Training between Women and Men Judoka (based on performance analysis during the Olympic Games in 1996)
Stanislaw Sterkowicz and Krzysztof Kucharczyk
The purpose of this work was to characterize current tendencies in training and determine the differences between sports fighting of women (n=151) and men (n=241) during the Olympic Judo Tournament in Atlanta. The average age of the competitors was 25.
The analysis of records of 527 fights made available to the author by International Judo Federation revealed the fact that women won less often than men before the time was over. In both groups the victory was achieved mainly by throws and the ability to force the opponent into penalty situations.
Women more often than men used holds and less often risky throws with a fall during the attack. In both groups the greater the frequency of a given type of attack, the lower the score, which shows that surprise was a significant factor. Another characteristics feature of female athletes was the lower intensity of action during the attack and especially the frequency of penalties than in men who were better able to use the time of the fight.
On the basis of general data concerning sports participation of women and men in the competitions it is possible to prepare individual and group characteristics. The explanation of the differences in the fighting techniques between women and men lies probably in the level of their body build, physical and mental preparation.
Causes of Emotion in Individual Sports as Exemplified by Sports Gymnastics and Judo
79 students at the Academy of Physical Education in Cracow-Poland were examined on their reasons for emotion during performing sport gymnastics and judo exercise.
It was observed that fewer students experienced desirable emotions during gymnastics exercise than during judo. Exercise on bars and ring exercise greatly influenced the arising of favourable emotions. in judo, holds, throws, and falls caused most satisfaction. In both the sports favourable emotions were observed during the exercise performed best and they were also related to the behaviour of the teachers.
Exercise on sport apparatus, unknown before the studies to almost 40% of all the examined students, most often caused undesirable emoctions, particularly evident during horizontal bar exercises. Discomfort was mainly due to fear body injury during exercise on sports pparatus, especially when taht was high.
In judo the undesirable emotions were mainly due to holds, back falls and strangle holds. the factors which increased udesirable emotions depended on the personality of the competitors and were similar in both sports.
Sub-groups comprising person feeling desirable emotions were rated higher than those of peaple feeling the udesirable emotions. A knowledge of reasons for desirable and undesirable emotions, arising during sport gymnastic and judo exercise, led to certain conclusions applicable in future practice
The Communication of Teachers with Students in the Course of the Training of the ABC of Judo.
The aim of this thesis was to characterize the affective side of the judo class and to verify the hypothesis about the feedback occurring between the 3rd-year students of the teaching specialization and the judo trainers at the Academy of Physical Education in Krakow. In order to obtain results, I employed Jackson and Baumgartner’s questionnaire, which makes use of a semantic differential scale to evaluate physical education class by the student. This questionnaire was supplemented with additional questions in order to find out what was good and what was bad in the judo class. This anonymous test was repeat twice with a three-week interval in two groups (n = 37) in which the teaching process was conducted by different instructors (n = 2). After the first test, the teachers familiarized themselves with the students’ opinions. The teachers discussed the comments concerning the particular parts of the class and the methods as well as techniques employed. The practical postulates were introduced during the next lessons while the verification of the results was carried out in the second test.
On the basis of our statistic calculation we found out that the students’ opinions of the judo class were different (p < 0,05). When the opinion on the classes conducted by two teachers were compared, both the first and the second test showed symptomatic differences, which reflected their individual styles of teaching. Thanks to the information obtained during that peculiar feedback, we observed a rise in the class evaluation, especially in the case of the first, less experienced teacher. The five out twelve criteria registered substantial improvement. Taking account of the learners’ expectations changed their opinion about their judo classes which in their view became more lively and successful, good, strong and hard.
Summary of “Ju-jitsu: Selected Aspects of Defensive Martial Art”
a book by Stanislaw Sterkowicz
This monographic work entitled “Ju-jitsu: Selected Aspects of Defensive Martial Art” contains twelve chapters in which the author has described important elements characterising persons training ju-jitsu and also defined this highly diversified defensive martial art in the light of the studies he conducted.
Chapter One presents the way of defining martial art showing its origins in the Far East along with the differences between its styles and the decision dilemmas of the contemporary instructor on whose attitude the preserving of identity of a given school depends.
Chapter Two not only concerns the motives of taking up ju-jitsu by men and women which are essential in practical training and its continuation after several years of practice, but also specifies various relationships between emotions and interactions occurring in multidirectional social communication and progress in the process of education and training.
Chapter Three considers the efficiency of the training process from various angles: describing the social rise of the individuals who are more physically able and the development of consciousness of their selves; characterises the type of body build, the measurable training effects which form a specific structure of endurance and co-ordination motor skills as well as it evaluates the special motor fitness of people practising ju-jitsu.
Chapter Four lists ju-jitsu techniques which are especially useful in contemporary self-defence because they can help to find an alternative way out of the situations in which life and health are endangered. It describes how punches and kicks are delivered, how falls and throws are executed, how the lever principle can be applied on the joints along with choking and gripping techniques used on the sensitive parts in the human body.
Chapter Five reveals correlations occurring between the sex of ju-jitsu students and the means preferred in self-defence, and it deals with counterattack as well as the combinations of technical elements in various emergency situations.
Chapter Six – describes the merits of Kata, i.e. formal exercises, and their importance for the development of physiological health related indices and motor fitness.
Chapter Seven presents the characteristic features of typical forms of the work out and the influence of stress caused by comprehensive, task-orientated and special training methods which are employed in combat sports. Chapter Eight characterises also the tactical aspects of combat routine and formulates some strategies useful in conflict prevention.
Chapters Nine and Ten analyse injuries, the ways traumas occur, the first aid procedures, and the principles of rehabilitation of handicapped athletes.
Chapter Eleven considers the significance of technical, tactical, physical, and psychological preparation and professional activities of the contemporary martial art instructor on which the achievements in sport in sport ju-jitsu depend. Chapter Twelve deals with the rules for holding tournaments in both the formal exercises, i.e. Kata, and combat events.
There are many conclusion for theory and practice of ju-jitsu at the end of the book and above 200 references, and 200 pictures.
A Comparison of Women’s and Men’s Technical Education at Judo Tournament
Stanislaw Sterkowicz and Marian Kesek
The aim of the paper was to compare the kind of activity demonstrated by 303 female and 493 male competitors who took part at all six of Polish Judo Tournaments. Using the shorthand method we had observed a course of 1.234 bouts. It was stated on the basis of simple statistics that the observed groups differing in sex reveal both common as well as differentiating them educational features. A profile of technical education of women had a positive correlation with the same profile of men (R = 0.56; p < 0.01).The Seoi Nage throw was typical for men and women, but it was more frequently used by lighter weight categories. The effectiveness of holding techniques Osaekomi-waza was higher for women than for men and it differentiated competitors in respect to weight categories. Women had also a relatively lower effectiveness while applying Te-waza, particularly in the heavier categories. Women dominated over men in use of Backward Throwing Techniques and in the general effectiveness of Nage-waza. Besides they proved to be less effective in defence against both Front- and Backwards Throws. Some regularities of judo fighting in regard to masters group have been explained, too.
The specific technical education of female and male judo players gives evidence of the schooling tendencies in Poland and at the same time is connected to differences in male and female adaptation abilities to training.
Description of Activity of the Participants of the First International Women’s Judo Tournament in Poland
Stanislaw Sterkowicz and Marian Kesek
During the first International Women’s Judo Tournament held on January 1983 in Wloclawek, Poland, type of the technique applied, its score value, direction of performance, effective combinations of various technique elements and counterattacks, and abortive attacks were recorded, using simple symbols. There participated players from Austria (5), Bulgaria (8), French (7), and Poland (38). In the course of 103 fights we noticed 126 effective techniques in Tachi-waza and 58 effective techniques in Ne-waza. Analysis of data has shown that effective actions in defense exerted stronger effect on competition result than the actions in attack. French women judo players, who won the first place in team rankings, showed high effectiveness of defensive actions and attack, symmetric all technical education, a large number of effective technique elements at the floor. In comparison with them, Polish competitors showed low effectiveness of floor technique and very few backward attacks. On this basis we derived some practical conclusion for mastering of training methods of our competitors.