|An Uchi-komi with load, a physiological approach of new special judo test proposal
Author: Ramdane ALMANSBA, Laboratoire de recherche “Evaluation Sport et Santé”, Faculté des Sciences du Sport et de l’Education Physique, Université Victor-Segalen Bordeaux II France.
Co-Author: Emerson Franchini, Combat Sports and Martial Arts Research Group, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, Brazil
Co-Author: Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Head of Department of Combat Sports, Academy of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland
Source: Science & Sport (2007) 22(5) 213-223. Submitted by author and available online at sciencedirect.com. We thank the Editions Elsevier Masson for the authorization of reproduction.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to elaborate and validate a specific test to evaluate the physical condition of judo players. Eleven elite and 12 sub-elite judo players (22±4 years-old) participated in our study. They were submitted to the shuttle run test of Leger et al. (1984), the Vertical Jump test, the Australian test and Special Judo Test.
In SJT an attacker must realize 6 sets. The duration of the first set is 23s and increasing of 3s by set (in static work of arms), separated by a break of 4s, increasing 2s each set. [A sound file for timing the sets is available in MP3 format.] During this test the subject performs two sequences of work:
a- Static work of arms: during 3s the subject grips the sleeve and reverse of a judogi in a fixed bar;
b- Dynamic and explosive work (20s). While going down of the fixed bar, the judo player runs toward one of the two ukes (receivers), practise Uchi-komi (Seoi-nage) with load, and then move towards the other uke and practise Sode-tsuri-komi-goshi. The results showed significant correlations between muscular power and performance during the Uchi-komi test (r =0.52, p < 0.01). Furthermore, there were also correlations between the number of Uchi-komi in two better series of specific judo test and the anaerobic power represented by the distance covered in 30s during the Australian shuttle test (r = 0.86, p < 0.01) and between the anaerobic capacity represented by the whole distance covered and the total number of Uchi-komi achieved at the judo test (r=0.88, p < 0.01). We recorded an average heart rate of 178±5 beats.min-1 with peaks of 191±7 beats.min-1 corresponding to 93% of the maximum heart rate. Thus, it can be concluded that the test reproduces the physiological characteristics of judo fight. It is a good indicator of the judoka’s physical state and their cardiovascular adaptation in a physical effort specific to judo.
A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THROWING SPEED BETWEEN HEAVIER AND LIGHTER CATEGORIES IN JUDO
Author: Ramdane ALMANSBA, Laboratoire de recherche EA 3300 ”APS et Conduites Motrices: Adaptations et Réadaptations“, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 80025 Amiens Cedex 1, France
Co-Author: Emerson Franchini, Combat Sports and Martial Arts Research Group, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, Brazil
Co-Author: Stanislaw Sterkowicz, Head of Department of Combat Sports, Academy of Physical Education, Kraków, Poland
Co-Author: Rodney T. Immamura, Department of Kinesiology and Health Science, California State University, Sacramento, USA
Co-Author: M. Calmet, Laboratoire de recherche EA 3300 ”APS et Conduites Motrices: Adaptations et Réadaptations“, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 80025 Amiens Cedex 1, France
Co-Author: S. Ahmaidi, Laboratoire de recherche EA 3300 ”APS et Conduites Motrices: Adaptations et Réadaptations“, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, 80025 Amiens Cedex 1, France
Source: 5th International Judo Federation World Research Symposium, 2007, Rio de Janeiro. Annals of the 5th International Judo Federation World Research Symposium, 2007. p. 24-24.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to verify if there was a difference in throwing speed performance between heavier and lighter weight categories in judo. Sixteen judoists aged 18±3 years-old, eight considered in the light weight category (-73 kg) and eight considered in the heavy weight category (+73 kg) participated in the study. A force/velocity test was used to determine the anaerobic power, strength, and pedal speed for each subject. Three trials of Nage-komi exercise, each comprised of 15 sets of Osoto-gari, Uchi-mata and Ippon-seoi-nage throws were performed by each subject to ascertain throwing speed. Throws within the sets were intersected by one period of 3 minute passive rest while the trials were separated by one period of 10 minute passive rest. Heart rate and the greatest number of throws within each set were measured for three trials. We used an ANOVA to compare the number of throws between the two weight categories and a “Student” test when the difference was significant. A correlation was used to examine the link between the different parameters. Results show that in the force/velocity test pedal speed did not differ between the two categories. However, there was a significant difference between the two categories when throwing speed was measured by the number of throws executed during the Seoi-nage and Uchi-mata, but there was no significant difference between the two categories for Osoto-gari. Our study showed that the throwing speed of judoists represented by number of throws appears to be significantly different between the two categories. The lighter category has more speed than the heavier category using arm technique (Seoi-nage), while the heavier category has more speed using leg technique with half turn of the attacker’s body (Uchi-mata). As a result, throwing speed is related to the type of technique used and not weight category.
Long-term effects of boxing and judo-choking techniques on brain function.
Author: Rodriguez G , Vitali P , Nobili F
Source: Italian Journal of Neurological Science, 19(6): 367-72 1998
Abstract: Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured by 133-xenon inhalation in 24 amateur and 20 professional boxers, and in 10 judoka. Results were compared with those from age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Eighteen boxers (9 amateurs and 9 professionals) and all judoka also underwent electroencephalography (EEG). Mean rCBF values did not differ between either amateur boxers orjudoka and controls, whereas in professional boxers rCBF was significantly (p.001) reduced in the whole brain, especially in the frontocentral regions. Healthy subjects, judoka, and amateur boxers showed a similar distribution of global CBF (gCBF, the mean of 32 probes) values, although 12.5% of amateurs had a significantly lower gCBF than controls. Among professional boxers, 25% showed a significantly low gCBF value; in the remaining 75%, gCBF was below the mean value of controls but did not reach statistical significance. Regional hypoperfusion, mainly in the frontocentral regions of both sides, was found in 35% of professional and in 29% of amateur boxers. A correlation between gCBF values and number of official matches was not found in boxers. EEG was normal in all judoka and amateur boxers, but it was abnormal in 3 professionals. This study shows the relevance of the neurophysiological assessment of athletes engaged in violent sports which can cause brain impairment. In fact, while professional boxers may show brain functional impairment in comparison to normal subjects, judoka do not. The lack of correlation between CBF values in boxers and the number of official matches points to the difficulty of taking into account variables, such as the number and the severity of matches during training.
|Contact Sport Concussion Incidence
|Beth A Tommasone, Tamara C Valovich McLeod. Journal of Athletic Training Oct-Dec 2006 Vol.41 , Iss. 4; pg. 470
|Main Results: The overall search identified 559 publications with possible relevance to the incidence of concussion in contact sports. After the titles were screened, 213 articles remained, and their abstracts were reviewed. The abstract screening for relevance yielded 127 articles to which the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The investigators then critically reviewed 63 articles that fit the inclusion criteria. During this critical review, 40 articles did not meet the 5 mandatory criteria listed above and were not evaluated further. After final screening, 23 articles were included in the study. Review of these 23 articles revealed that among team sports for high school males, ice hockey athletes demonstrated the highest incidence of concussion (3.6 per 1000 athlete-exposures [AEs], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.99-9.29) and soccer athletes the lowest incidence of concussion (0.18 per 1000 AEs, 95% CI = 0.14-0.22). At the professional level, similar concussion incidence rates were found in both ice hockey (6.5 per 1000 player-games, 95% CI = 4.8-8.6) and rugby (9.05 per 1000 player-games, 95% CI = 4.1-17.1) players. When compared with other individual male sports (karate and tae kwon do), boxing had the highest incidence of concussion in professional (0.8 per 10 rounds, 95% CI = 0.75-0.95) and amateur (7.9 per 1000 man-minutes, 95% CI = 5.45-11.09) athletes. Only 6 included studies (5 dealing with tae kwon do and 1 with soccer) addressed concussion incidence in females. Tae kwon do had the highest incidence of concussion (8.77 per 1000 AEs, 95% CI = 0.22-47.9).
|Conclusions: The information presented in the article offers helpful insight into the rate of concussion in athletes from 8 contact sports. Ice hockey seemed to have the greatest incidence of concussion for males, whereas tae kwon do had the highest incidence rate for females. Relatively few rigorous epidemiologic studies on the incidence of concussion exist. Specifically, 63% of the identified studies did not meet the methodologic criteria to be included in this systematic review. In addition, limited information exists on the risk of concussion for females in contact sports. Future authors should address the limitations in reporting incidences, including the lack of adequately measured denominators (person-time at risk), vague definitions of concussion, combining game and practice injuries, and history of concussive injury. Future researchers should also include at least the 5 mandatory methodologic criteria used in the critical appraisal of articles for this review to allow for better reporting of concussion incidence and comparison among various studies. Concussion incidence in females should also be explored.
|Frequency and direction of competitive anger in contact sports
|C Robazza, M Bertollo, L Bortoli Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness. Turin: Sep 2006 Vol.46 , Iss. 3; pg. 501
Discussion: As expected, findings showed a general tendency of contact sport competitors to feel a moderate frequency of competitive anger symptoms. In addition, many athletes tended to interpret their symptoms of competitive anger as facilitative of performance rather than debilitative. Such predisposition was more evident in rugby players than in athletes of individual combat sports, and in high skill performers of individual sports compared to their lower level peers. Differences by sport emerged on the direction scores of competitive angry temperament (i.e., the general disposition toward angry feelings) and the expression of anger outward through verbal or physical aggression, with rugby players reporting a more facilitative interpretation of their angry symptoms than did judokas and wrestlers. In the social context surrounding rugby, the emphasis that team managers, coaches, players and rugby commentators usually place on anger and aggressive behavior can influence the content of the player’s beliefs and the perception of the effects of emotion on performance.29,30 As a result, players can actively seek feelings of anger and other negative emotions (e.g., anxiety and tension) to enhance their arousal level and generate the energy necessary to sustain effort, postpone fatigue, maintain alertness, and keep the right focus.4,5 Competitors, therefore, can interpret their states as beneficial for performance.4-7,13
Another reason for the sport differences in the directional interpretations of competitive anger may relate to the frequency of symptoms. At the group level, the symptoms of anger assessed through the Reaction to criticism and Anger-out scales of the STAXI were reported to be experienced more frequently by judokas and wrestlers than by rugby players. Individual competitors may find it difficult to handle a relatively high frequency of anger, and therefore they may perceive it as not beneficial for performance. In general, the pressure of having direct responsibility for personal performance is high in individual sports and somewhat moderate in team sports. As a consequence, different patterns of emotional states can be associated with individual and team sports,12,25 although the evidence is not conclusive.31 Low proficient performers may thus experience symptoms of anger as necessary for fighting but difficult to deal with. Support for this argument was shown in the relatively small percentage of low skill athletes who reported beneficial effects of anger. While low skill athletes are likely to encounter trouble in harnessing the energies elicited by negative emotions, high skill athletes are able to manage negative states and take advantage of the energizing effects of emotions.
Mean scores on the anger control scale of the STAXI provided further insight. Notably, participants scored significantly higher on the Anger control scale rather than on Anger-in and Anger-out expression scales. In the whole sample, most athletes reported the control of anger as occurring more frequently and believed it to be more facultative than the expression of anger. These results reinforce the opinion that performers can manage their anger so as to energize their behavior in striving to beat their opponents and thus channel their physical and mental resources for skill execution. These findings could be interpreted using Carver etal.32 control-process model on stress and coping, which Jones 23 adapted to sport. The model attempts to explain how the symptoms associated with competitive anxiety may be individually interpreted as helpful or harmful. Anxiety would be viewed as facilitative when the performer’s expectancies of being able to cope with competition and of goal achievement remained favorable. If anticipated outcomes became unfavorable, anxiety would be viewed as debilitative. Hence, directional interpretations of anxiety symptoms (i.e., facilitative or debilitative) would rely on the individual’s cognitive appraisal of being able to control the environment and the self. Extending the anxiety-based notions of the control-process model, we could hypothesize that many athletes feel a moderate frequency of anger as advantageous for performance because they believe themselves able to exert control over their feelings, and therefore direct the energizing effects of emotional arousal associated with anger to the task.
Conclusions: Findings of the present paper suggest that athletes of contact sports can perceive anger as advantageous when under personal control, although the type of sport (i.e., team vs individual) and the athlete’s competitive skill level (i.e., high vs low) are factors that tend to moderate the individual’s interpretation of the effects of anger upon performance. Practitioners need to be aware that there are circumstances in which competitive anger is beneficial for an individual’s achievements. Hence, helping athletes to control their feelings might be a better strategy than encouraging them to suppress these feelings.
The effects of physical exercise on the concentrations of ferritin and transferrin receptor in plasma of female judoists.
Author: Malczewska J , Blach W , Stupnicki R
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine, 21(3): 175-9 2000
Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of physical exercise on the changes in concentrations of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) in plasma in course of 10 consecutive days of a training camp. Ten female elite judoists, aged 17-23 years, participated in the study. Mean concentration of ferritin for the 10 day period was 62.8 x 1.633(+/-1) microg/l, the within-subject, day-to-day variability being very high (13-75%). Ferritin concentrations were significantly correlated with the training load on the preceding day (r = 0.397; p < 0.001). Mean level of sTfR was 2.56 x 1.291(+/-1) mg/l and its within-subject variability was much lower (4-16%). Although the training loads had an effect on the intravascular hemolysis as indicated by a significant, negative correlation between load scores and haptoglobin concentration (r = -0.282; p < 0.01), the latter was not correlated significantly with sTfR levels. It was concluded that the soluble transferrin receptor is a more stable indicator of iron status under high training loads since, unlike ferritin, it does not respond to the workload on the preceding day. Moreover, the intravascular hemolysis observed in athletes does not affect the sTfR levels in plasma.
Neutrophil function response to aerobic and anaerobic exercise in female judoka and untrained subjects.
Author: Wolach B , Falk B , Gavrieli R , Kodesh E , Eliakim A
Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(1): 23-8 2000
Abstract: OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have indicated reduced immunity in trained athletes. AIM: To assess the effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on the phagocytic process in 18-26 year old trained female judoka (n = 8) and untrained controls (n = 7). METHODS: Each subject participated randomly in two different testing sessions (aerobic, 20 minutes of treadmill running at 70-80% of maximal heart rate; anaerobic, Wingate anaerobic test). Venous blood samples were drawn before, immediately after, and 24 hours after each session. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in basal values of net chemotaxis (chemotaxis–random migration), bactericidal activity, and superoxide anion release between the judoka and the untrained women. There was a significant decrease in net chemotaxis 24 hours after the aerobic exercise in both the judoka (from 64 (19) to 39 (13) cells/field, p < 0.02) and the untrained controls (from 60 (7) to 47 (12) cells/field, p < 0.05). Bactericidal activity and superoxide anion release did not change significantly after aerobic exercise in either group. There were no significant changes in net chemotaxis, bactericidal activity, and superoxide anion release after anaerobic exercise in either the judoka or untrained women. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in net chemotaxis after aerobic, but not after anaerobic, exercise, suggests that net chemotaxis is affected by the combination of exercise intensity and duration, and not by the exercise intensity itself. Similar effects of both exercise sessions in the judoka and the untrained women suggest that training had no effect on neutrophil function response to aerobic and anaerobic exercises.
Correlating testosterone and fighting in male participants in judo contests.
Author: Salvadora A , Suay F , Martinez-Sanchis S , Simon VM , Brain PF
Source: Physiological Behavior, 68(1-2): 205-9 0
Abstract: The role of hormones in human aggression is open to debate, but takes on a new urgency owing to the alarming abuse of androgenic anabolic steroids by some sports participants. In this study, video-taped behavior exhibited by 28 male competitors during a judo fight was assessed to analyze its relation to serum testosterone and cortisol levels measured before and after the bouts. A positive relation between testosterone and offensive behaviors was obtained in the sense that the greater the hormonal titer, the greater the number of threats, fights, and attacks. These findings coincide with the pattern of relationships found using observational scales. Conversely, cortisol also presented positive correlations with some of these behavioral categories but did not moderate the relationship between testosterone and competitive behavior. The present results corroborate and extend earlier findings on the role of these hormones in human behavior, giving support to the view that testosterone can be linked to the expression of competitive aggression.
Judo–the gentle way: a replication of studies on martial arts and aggression.
Author: Lamarre BW , Nosanchuk TA
Source: Perceptual Motor Skills, 88(3 Pt 1): 992-6 1999
Abstract: There have been numerous studies of the effects of traditional martial arts training on aggressiveness, most reporting a decline in aggressiveness with training. The majority of these studies have examined students of karate or taekwondo, disciplines emphasizing strikes and blocks. In contrast, this cross-sectional study examined the effects of traditional judo training on aggressiveness by looking at 51 judo students. Furthermore, we incorporate into our analysis two variables generally associated with aggression, age and sex, to control for their effects. Aggressiveness declined as expected across training and ages, but surprisingly sex had no effect in this setting.
Effects of competition and its outcome on serum testosterone, cortisol and prolactin.
Author: Suay F , Salvador A , González-Bono E , Sanchís C , Martínez M , Martínez-Sanchis S , Simón VM , Montoro JB
Source: Psychoneuroendocrinology, 24(5): 551-66 1999
Abstract: In various species, competitive encounters influence hormonal responses in a different way depending on their outcome, victory or defeat. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sports competition and its outcome on hormonal response, comparing it with those displayed in situations involving non-effort and non-competitive effort. To this end, serum testosterone (T), cortisol (C) and prolactin (PRL) were measured in 26 judoists who participated in three sessions (control, judo fight and ergometry). The relationship between hormonal changes and psychological variables before and after the fight were also analysed. Our results showed a hormonal response to competition, which was especially characterized by an anticipatory rise of T and C. Depending on outcome, significant higher C levels were found in winners in comparison to losers through all the competition but not in T or PRL, both groups expending a similar physical effort. Furthermore, similar hormonal responses to the fight and to a non-competitive effort with the same caloric cost were found, other than with PRL. Winners showed a higher appraisal of their performance and satisfaction with the outcome, and perceived themselves as having more ability to win than losers, although there were no significant differences in motivation to win. Finally, the relationships found between T changes in competition and motivation to win, as well as between C response and self-efficacy suggest that in humans hormonal response to competition is not a direct consequence of winning and losing but rather is mediated by complex psychological processes.
Judo strategy. The competitive dynamics of internet time.
Author: Yoffie DB , Cusumano MA
Source: Harvard Business Review, 77(1): 70-81 0
Abstract: Competition on the Internet is creating fierce battles between industry giants and small-scale start-ups. Smart start-ups can avoid those conflicts by moving quickly to uncontested ground and, when that’s no longer possible, turning dominant players’ strengths against them. The authors call this competitive approach judo strategy. They use the Netscape-Microsoft battles to illustrate the three main principles of judo strategy: rapid movement, flexibility, and leverage. In the early part of the browser wars, for instance, Netscape applied the principle of rapid movement by being the first company to offer a free stand-alone browser. This allowed Netscape to build market share fast and to set the market standard. Flexibility became a critical factor later in the browser wars. In December 1995, when Microsoft announced that it would “embrace and extend” competitors’ Internet successes, Netscape failed to give way in the face of superior strength. Instead it squared off against Microsoft and even turned down numerous opportunities to craft deep partnerships with other companies. The result was that Netscape lost deal after deal when competing with Microsoft for common distribution channels. Netscape applied the principle of leverage by using Microsoft’s strengths against it. Taking advantage of Microsoft’s determination to convert the world to Windows or Windows NT, Netscape made its software compatible with existing UNIX systems. While it is true that these principles can’t replace basic execution, say the authors, without speed, flexibility, and leverage, very few companies can compete successfully on Internet time.
Relationship between muscle fiber pennation and force generation capability in Olympic athletes.
Author: Ichinose Y , Kanehisa H , Ito M , Kawakami Y , Fukunaga T
Source: International Journal of Sports Medicine, 19(8): 541-6 1998
Abstract: The thickness (TBmt) and fiber pennation angle (TBpen) of triceps brachii as well as isokinetic force developed during elbow extension were measured in Olympic athletes to investigate the relationship between muscle fiber pennation and force generation capability. The subjects were male members of the 1996 Japanese Olympic team who competed in seven different events; 9 wrestlers, 16 soccer players, 11 sprinters, 5 judo athletes, 7 gymnasts, 9 rowers and 18 baseball players. The TBmt and TBpen, measured by a B-mode ultrasound, ranged between 29 mm and 50 mm and between 11 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively, and on average were larger in the judo athletes, wrestlers and gymnasts compared to the other groups. A significant correlation (r=0.580, p < 0.05) was found between TPpen and TBmt per unit of the upper arm length, and so the observed event-related differences in TBpen tended to reflect the differences in TBmt. The isokinetic forces relative to the cross-sectional area (CSA) estimated from TBmt, measured at two constant velocities of 1.05 rad/s (F1.05/CSA) and 3.14 rad/s (F3.14/ CSA), were negatively correlated to the CSA; r=-0.617 (p < 0.05) for F1.05/CSA and r=-0.635 (p < 0.05) for F3.14/CSA. In addition, low but significant negative correlations existed between TBpen and both F1.05/CSA (r=-0.365, p < 0.05) and F3.14/ CSA (r=-0.336, p < 0.05). Even when the effect of TBpen was statistically normalized, the F1.05/CSA and F3.14/CSA were still negatively correlated to the CSA, r=-0.530 (p < 0.05) for F1.05/ CSA and r=-0.561 (p < 0.05) for F3.14/CSA. Therefore, at least in the Olympic athletes tested in this study, the magnitude of the pennation angles reflects muscle size, but it does not seem to be a factor that explains extensively the lower F/CSA in athletes with large muscle size.
Spectral analysis of electroencephalography changes after choking in judo (juji-jime).
Author: Rau R , Raschka C , Brunner K , Banzer W
Source: Med Science Sports Exercise, 30(9): 1356-62 1998
Abstract: PURPOSE: The present study was carried out to investigate possible electroencephalographic changes induced by choking in judo (shime-waza) by means of spectral analysis and brain mapping. METHODS: Power spectral changes in Electroencephalography (EEG) were recorded in six experienced judoka who underwent a choking trial with a “shime-waza choking” technique called juji-jime. RESULTS: A significant increase of global field power in the delta- and theta-range occurred, while physiological alpha-power decreased. These changes in the low-frequency range reached a statistically significant level within a time span up to 20 s after choking, which was performed at an average choking time of 8 s. In no case did choking provoke neuropsychological symptoms. Yet, spectral EEG-analysis revealed subclinical changes of brain function. CONCLUSIONS: Choking in judo may induce subclinical electroencephalographic perturbations. The extent and duration can be objectified by means of spectral analysis of EEG data, global field power computation, and brain-mapping representation.