Managing the Training Process in Combat Sports
(Selected abstracts of papers qualified for presentation at The Second Express Scientific Conference organized by the Combat Sports Department)
Saturday, 26 June 1999
1) PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES OF WRESTLING AND GYMNASTICS COACHES
Stanislaw STERKOWICZ*, Leon BISKUP**, Tadeusz AMBROZY**,
*Department of Combat Sports, ** Department of Gymnastics Academy of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
The aim of the present research was to define the importance of professional activities of the coach in achieving successes in women’s free style wrestling and women’s gymnastics. A number of opinions of some outstanding coaches and women competitors were analysed on this subject by means of a special survey questionnaire. It included 20 professional activities of the coach, whose weight was valued on a numerical scale. A number of differences were discovered, the greatest of which concerned the importance of tactical schooling, which was considerably much more vital in wrestling than in gymnastics. Yet, the coaches and competitors regarded technical schooling as the most important for attaining success, regardless of the disciplines of sport. In each of the two disciplines of sport, there was a strong correlation between the opinions of the coaches and their women competitors.
Ranking the importance of professional activities that are indispensable for effective schooling in sports may be a basis for verification of the current educational programmes for instructors and coaches. A similar conclusion we have from the analysis of the judo coaches opinion (see research7.htm)
2)LEVELS OF ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC CAPACITY INDICES AND RESULTS FOR THE SPECIAL FITNESS TEST IN JUDO COMPETITORS
Stanislaw STERKOWICZ,* Adam ZUCHOWICZ,** Ryszard KUBICA**
*Department of Combat Sports, ** Institute of Human Physiology, Academy of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fitness level in judoka on the basis of some laboratory physiological tests and Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during their preparatory period.
The 30-second Wingate Test was used to diagnose anaerobic fitness, while aerobic fitness was evaluated by graded exercise tests on treadmill. The SJFT was used to evaluate the current level of fitness preparation of the judoka.
The study was carried out on fifteen seniors from the judo section of Wisla-Code Sports Club in Cracow.
The judoka had a high level of anaerobic fitness because their relative total work was 259.53(S.D.)19.40 J/kg, MAP index amounted to 11.36(S.D.)0.86 W/kg, while the mean value of fatigue index was 0.26(S.D.)0.046 W/kg/s. The time of their effort on the treadmill was on average 10 minutes 38 seconds and the distance was 2297 metres. The maximum oxygen intake per minute during their effort on the treadmill amounted on average to 50.1(S.D.)6.48 ml/kg/min. It took 6 minutes and 36 seconds to achieve the threshold running speed-TDMA (v = 3.33(S.D.)0.24 m/s. The Special Judo Fitness Test, which was periodically interrupted to simulate fighting bouts and SJF index, correlated with both the parameters of anaerobic capacity (relative total work, maximum anaerobic power, fatigue index) and with those of aerobic fitness (time and distance covered on the treadmill, relative V02max, threshold running speed at TDMA, and the time the judoka took to achieve it).
Conclusion. Taking into account the common variance of the results of the Special Judo Fitness test with the parameters gathered during the laboratory physiological tests (32.5 – 71.1%), it was pointed out in the conclusion to this study that the SJFT could be alternatively used to evaluate the effort tolerance in judoka, especially under circumstances where the laboratory facilities are not available for coaches during training.
3) INFLUENCE OF THE APPLIED TRAINING LOADS ON THE LEVEL OF SPECIAL FITNESS OF JUDO COMPETITORS
Stanislaw STERKOWICZ, Wojciech RUKASZ
Department of Combat Sports Academy of Physical Education Cracow
The characteristic of training loads of senior judo competitors and their influence on the of special fitness level is the main aim of the paper. The 15 judo competitors of TS-Wisla Code of Krakow were subjected to the researches. The individual training loads of competitors were analysed in TREOB-4 programme. From the analysis of training loads one came to conclusion, that the most of time was devoted to the special endurance preparation forming the anaerobic-acid-milk effort abilities and to the general endurance preparation forming the aerobic energetic transformations. The Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) was carried out twice during the analysed training cycle: at the beginning of the preparation period and at the end of starting period one week before the Individual Senior Championships of Poland. During the second repetition of TSRR preceded by the 3-month training, one could observe advantageous changes in the results of SJFT. The point was that the number of throws increased in the specific test, the minute effort heart systole frequency and restitution pulse decreased. It was the testimony of the better adaptation of competitors to the efforts, which are typical during training and competition. One also came to conclusion that the competitors, who were subjected to the higher training loading, obtained worse results during the Championships of Poland. Some explanation of that phenomenon was lower level of special fitness preparation level and the lower number of fights during the control tournaments and the lower degree of advancement in judo. These, who had higher achievements at the Championships of Poland, took more often part in competitions that were recognised as the effective way of training during preparations to the main competitions.
4) GRADED SPECIAL FITNESS JUDO TEST
Stanislaw STERKOWICZ, ZBIGNIEW ROLSKI
Academy of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
The idea of this test is based on the classical graded physiological tests on track or cycloergometer. This test is a modification proposed by S. Sterkowicz (1995) of the special judo fitness test (SJFT). On the basis of the studies by above-mentioned author and Franchini et al. (1998), it was observed that the frequency of throws per minute dropped in consecutive series of this test (an example you can see – Figure below).
To control the load in the consecutive stages in our judo test we decided to apply sound signal, a similar solution applied in the experiments concerning the guiding of the competitors’ consecutive movements in swimming (Rolski 1995).
This modified test consists of five of degrees. The time of each degree of effort was set at 2 minutes, and the first degree consists of three such series, while the second one of two. This is caused by the necessity to obtain the state of functional balance at the start of work. The remaining degrees: III, IV, and V are two-minute individual efforts. In addition, the distance between the competitors during the test was decreased from 6 to 4 metres.
In order to run this test it will be necessary to define the competitor’s current maximum frequency of throws per minute, which occurs during the last degree of this test. On its basis, the first degree of the test is fixed at 50% of maximum current frequency of throws a minute. The consecutive degrees of the test form a proportional distribution of frequency of throws up to the maximum degree. Degrees: I, II, III, and IV of the test are guided, i.e. the competitor has to execute throws on signal, and their frequency is regulated in the consecutive degrees. The competitor executes his or her last maximum effort without the imposed rhythm of throws.
After each degree of the test, the pulse is checked in the course of the first 10 seconds after the conclusion of effort, along with the level of concentration of lactic acid in the blood. Thanks to this it is possible to define the individual physiological characteristics of the competitor according to the dependency between the concentration of lactic acid and the frequency of throws per minute, as well as between the frequency of throws and his or her post-effort pulse.
5) TIME AND MATERIAL STRUCTURE IN JU-JITSU SPORTS COMBAT
Stanislaw STERKOWICZ, Tadeusz AMBROZY, Krzysztof LATINEK
Academy of Physical Education in Cracow
Ju-jitsu, which derives from brutal hand-to-hand fight (Kondratowicz 1991, Witkowski 1993, Sterkowicz 1998), has been turned into a sport in the last few years, and its rules emphasise the versatility of technical and tactical schooling. Both long distance attacks (punches with upper and lower limbs, i.e. phase I), and in clinch (throws, i.e. phase II) and groundwork grappling techniques (like in judo – locks, holding and strangling techniques, i.e. phase III) are permissible.
However, in this new discipline of sport, there is no specialist evaluation of tournament participation, which would clearly determine the type of training sessions the in the clubs of the Polish Ju-Jitsu Association. Thus, our aim was to obtain a description of tournament participation in sports combat. The video recordings of fights during VIII Individual Championship of Polish Seniors in Katowice (1999) constituted our research material.
Some 84 competitors, who are actually the leaders in Polish and world ju-jitsu, participated in the tournament. The contest was conducted in 6 weight categories, according to the regulations of the Association. The bouts were recorded by means of three VHS cameras and were analysed by a group of three observers.
This study compares the course of fights in the heaviest category, over 94 kg (n = 9 fights) and the lightest weight, to 62 kg (n = 9 fights). In order to discover the specific nature of the competition in the above-mentioned weight categories, we took into account both the analysis of time and material structures of sports fight.
At the beginning, we calculated the percentage index of time utilisation in fight (Sikorski 1985). Each fight was divided into three fragments (according to the periods stipulated in the regulations). Reproducing the course of each fight on video by means of a stopwatch exact to 1/100 s, we measured time of: the entire fight, effective fight, each phase, and pauses. We also calculated the total time of each fragment of fight (Phase I, II, and III) and of pauses, which separated them.
We isolated the kind of attack in the analysis of material structure (name of technique), its side (right, left side of the defender), the evaluation of judges (Wazaari – 1 point, Ippon – 2 points) and the penalties (Shido, Chui, Keikoku, Hansoku-make) imposed during particular phases of fight with regard to elapsing minutes. We employed the Sterkowicz and Kesek (1983) Observational Sheet in the recording of judo fights, which was modified according to of the needs of analysis of Ju-jitsu sports fight.
We calculated the arithmetic means of time characteristics of fight in its individual phases and the average time of pauses, number of techniques used in consecutive minutes and their average point value, average value of attacks from each group of the techniques (punches, kicks, throws, grappling techniques). We also analysed tactical solutions, taking into account the place where an efficient attack was executed, and the manner of attack (single, counter-attack, and combinations).
On the basis of the present research, we discovered a number of features characterising the course of fight, which differentiated between weight categories:
This research made us formulate a suggestion concerning the usefulness of the methods used in monitoring sports Ju-jitsu fight. The results obtained allow us to present a technical schooling pattern for the two weight categories. These technical patterns could show the direction of schooling at sports clubs. At the same time, they advise on inadequate defence against typical attacks in each phase of fight. There is a need for improvement in tactical solutions with regard to the combining of techniques in efficient counter-attacks and combinations with regard to the place of fight.
The individual characteristics of competitors that we developed could be used in concrete training assignments: e.g. selection of the time of effort, pauses in interval training, and simulations of the behaviour of potential opponents in fight.
6) DIFFERENTIATION BETWEEN HIGH CLASS JUDOISTS IN TERMS OF INDEXES OF EXPERIENCE, PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT, PSYCHOMOTOR FITNESS AND THEIR ACTIVITIES DURING COMPETITIONS
Stanislaw STERKOWICZ*, Jan BLECHARZ**, Grzegorz LECH*
*Department of Combat Sports, **Department of Psychology Academy of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
The aim of the present work was to give an answer to the question whether such factors as weight category, age and training career, advancement degree and the actual level of successes in the sport will cause essential differentiation between the tested judoists in the light of their results of physical fitness tests.
A complex research was carried out on 16 competitors from T. S. Wisla-Code in Cracow during their immediate preparations just before the Polish Judo Seniors’ Championship in Chorzów held between the 29 th and 31 st of May in 1998. The average values (including their range) of age, training career, body mass and height and of the Rohrer body build index (RI.) were as follows: 22.8 (aged 18 – 32), 11.9 (7 – 20 years), 81.19 (between 58 – 120 kg), 175.9 (between 163 – 192 cm), with RI averaging 1.48 (1.08 – 1.79).
Their degree of advancement ranged from 2 Kyu to 3 Dan, and was marked as follows: 2 Kyu = 1, 1 Kyu = 2, 1 Dan = 3, 2 Dan = 4, 3 Dan = 5.
The following methods were used in our research on the competitors’ state of preparation:
Some observations of the course of fights during the Polish Championships in Chorzów (May 29-31. 1998).
The influence of individual factors on their achievements in this sport was defined by means of the ANOVA test, while the importance of differences between average values was verified by means of the Duncan multiple range test
Then, values of the Spearman “rsp” correlation coefficients were counted in relation to their achievements in this sport their achievements during the Polish Championships ’98.
Those calculations helped to ascertain that the awarding of points during the Polish Championship depended both on the characteristics obtained during laboratory research, on parameters measured by means of SJFT, and on individual indexes describing the course of fight.
The number of reactions detected by the K-5 cross apparatus at a pre-set speed and the ranking during the Championship were correlated at an average level of 0.48, whereas the awarding of points and the number of movements indispensable to go through the labyrinth in the first two trials showed a higher correlation (P0 – rsp = -0.54; P1 – rsp = -0.64)
The total number of throws during the SJFT test influenced success considerably during the competitions (rsp = 0.63). During the successive stages, the SJFT correlation coefficient value increased, amounting in series A to 0.47, in series B to 0.51, in series C to 0.64.
The characteristics of the course of fights were highly correlated with the successes of the competitors during the tournament, with the strongest correlation in the attack effectiveness index (0.73) and their defence activities (-0.67).
The correlation of attack activity index and the rank during the competition proved to be a little weaker (0.66)
No such dependency was observed in the case of defence effectiveness (rsp = 0.08).
It was discovered, that the competitors attaining the best results in this sport during the period preceding the Polish Championships had considerably better psycho-motor fitness and higher ability to concentrate on their tasks than the judoists with poorer results.
The observation and analysis of the course of fights verified of the need for conducting both laboratory research and the special fitness motor test.
In the end, one can draw a conclusion that the methods employed by us can be successfully used to monitor judoists’ psycho-physical state and to evaluate the level of their special fitness preparation during their participation in competitions.
7) TRAINING TENDENCIES IN JUDO ON THE GROUND OF ANALYSIS OF FIGHTS OF SENIOR COMPETITORS
Stanislaw STERKOWICZ, Grzegorz LECH
Department of Combat Sports Academy of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
The aim of the paper is demonstration of the general regularities concerning the effectiveness of the different groups of fight techniques. The researches were based on the video records of Seniors Championships of Poland, which were held in Chorzów, 29-31 May 1998. The 256 fights were observed, where 204 of competitors made together 729 throws and 51 grappling techniques. The analysis of effectiveness comprised seven categories based on the following criteria:
The Chi2 tests of independence and contingency coefficient were used during the analysis.
From the research the following conclusions were obtained:
8) DEVELOPMENTAL PROPENSITIES IN FEMALE JUDO IN LIGHT OF ATLANTA AND BARCELONA RESULTS
Wieslaw BLACH,* Stanislaw STERKOWICZ**
*Department of Combat Sports Academy of Physical Education in Wroclaw, **Department of Combat Sports Academy of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
Results obtained at the successive Olympic Games (OG) provide a the considerable body of comparative data. The analysis of this material allows us to reveal tendencies characteristic in different sports. Repeated comparisons increase the reliability of such analyses, which leads to file better understanding of which trends are progressive, and which are restrained. Our own teaching programs must be consistent in terms of the essence and time with expected global tendencies, if we want our national team compete successfully in the Olympic Games to come.
The purpose of this paper is a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fights results at the Olympics. Indication of possible regularities in carrying on the fights in all categories as well as a comparison between distinguishing contest techniques may let us rationally schedule and execute the preparation of the athletes to the events.
Our material includes performance of the female judo participants at the OG 1992 (N = 165) and OG 1996 (N = 153). Basic sources of information for the analysis are computer printouts that contain data on the individual performance of the athletes taking part in ’92 and ‘96 Olympics.
The performed analysis of data confirms the increasing share of medals earned by the Asian countries. Practically, it means that the particular attention ought to be focused on the methods of solving combats by the Asian athletes. The appreciation of these methods by Polish coaches and athletes should lead to more effective tactical preparation for combats at the Olympics 2000.
9) DIFFERENCES IN THE TOURNAMENT ACTIVITY OF WOMEN AND MEN PRACTISING JUDO
Departament of Combat Sports, Academy of Physical Education, Cracow, Poland
The purpose of this work was to characterize current tendencies in training and determine the differences between sports fighting of women (n=242) and men (n=342) during the World Championship in Paris ‘97.
The analysis of records of 758 fights made available to the author by International Judo Federation revealed the fact that women won less often than men before the time was over. In both groups mainly the ability to force the opponent into penalty situations and throws achieved the victory.
Women more often than men used holds and the hip and loin throws. In both groups the greater the frequency of a given type of attack, the lower the score, which shows that surprise, was a significant factor. Another characteristic feature of female athletes was the lower intensity of action during the attack and especially the frequency of penalties than in men who were better able to use the time of the fight.
On the basis of general data concerning sports participation of women and men in the competitions it is possible to prepare individual and group characteristics (i.e. medallists, weight categories, national teams, continents). The explanation of the differences in the fighting techniques between women and men lies probably in the level of their body build, physical and mental preparation.
10) COMPARISON OF SKILL RANGE BETWEEN OLYMPIC AND WORLD JUDO MEDALLISTS
Emerson FRANCHINI*, S. STERKOWICZ**
*Laboratory of Sport Performance of School of Physical Education and Sport of University of São Paulo (Brazil), ** Combat Sports Department of Academy of Physical Education of Cracow (Poland)
Judo is a sport that can be classified as an open modality because judo players have to process information during all the fight (Schimdt, 1993) and judo players try to confound their opponents in attempt to apply a successful technique (Adams & Carter, 1988). In judo a point can be attained by: (1) throwing (Nage-waza, i.e. Ashi-waza, Te-waza, Koshi-waza, Sutemi-waza); (2) pinning (Osae-waza); (3) choking (Shime-waza); (4) applying an arm bar (Kansetsu-waza); (5) penalties. Thus the aim of this study was verify if judo players classified at Olympics (Atlanta’96) and World Championships (Chiba’95 and Paris’97) in first place differ from second and third places in the variables presented in Tables 1 and 2.
Table 1. Distribution of the techniques effectively used by 96 Olympic and World Championships medallists
Note: numbers ( ) are percentages of their respective row total.
Table 2: Frequency of points obtained from technical actions and from penalties
Note: numbers ( ) are percentages of their respective row total
The results from chi-square test showed that Ashi waza frequency were bigger in the gold medallists (46,15%) than in the silver and bronze medallists group (35,76%) (test for two percentages p < 0.05). The gold medallists significantly rare used Sutemi-waza, which were more preferable by second group (p < 0.01). The second group slightly often used techniques, which gave more occasions to groundwork activity and Katame-waza. For the points obtained from techniques (included punishment points) we have similar conclusion. Another important aspect is the big number of points obtained from penalties (45,49%), indicating that this strategy (punishment of adversary) is the most used by judo players.
The authors would like to thank Mr. Brent Cooper from IJF Education Committee for cooperation sending official IJF data.
11) COMPETITION RESULTS AND ATTEMPTS AT FORESEEING SPORTS ACHIEVEMENTS IN JUDO
Department of Combat Sports Academy of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
Sports results testify to the efficiency of a schooling system in record-seeking sport. Besides, the forecasting of the result of a competitor and his or her teams is an important link in the control over the preparation of this athlete (Wazny 1981). Answering the question about what the strongest competitors do can be especially useful in adopting an optimum strategy for the schooling of the athlete.
The objective of this research was to analyse of the results of some selected national teams during a period of 10 years and to try to forecast the sports result at the 1999 World Judo Championships. At each championships held in seven weight categories (and in open weight), some 32 medals were handed out and we calculated them into points (gold medal – 7 points, silver medal – 5 points, 2 bronze medals -3,5 points each). The ranking of national teams of the countries participating in particular contests was determined on this basis and then we chose only those teams which had achieved a number of points at each tournament, i.e. Japan, France, South Korea, Poland, and the USA. The time sequences of their achievements were compared, their profiles plotted, and configuration similarity was compared by means of the DuMasa index rps (according to Brzezinski 1980).
From the conducted analysis, it follows that the Japanese team still remains a matchless example of schooling in judo. It is possible to notice, however, that with every championship their share in the medal pool is on a decrease (32 medals in 7 weight categories and at open tournament). Yet, there are some national teams, which train intensely to defeat the Japanese champions (e.g. France, Korea, and Poland).
Undoubtedly, observing and recording the course of fights and their analysis contributes to a better control over the technical and tactical preparation of athletes. Some additionally calculated functions of the STATGRAPHICS plus 4.0 – a statistical programme – allowed us to determine a model for forecasting and checking of the earlier diagnoses. The differences between our forecasts and the actual scores in 1997 were verified. On the basis of such verification we selected a trend model and projected the forecast results at the World Championships to be held in Birmingham in the October 1999.
12) STREAMLINING THE SCHEDULE OF TECHNICAL AND TACTICAL SCHOOLING OF JUNIOR JUDOISTS
Stanislaw STERKOWICZ, Sylwester SPELAK
Combat Sports Department of Academy of Physical Education of Cracow, Poland
The goal of this paper was to optimise the plan of technical and tactical schooling of junior judoists in such a way that their successes would be satisfying both to contestants and their coaches. This research aimed at eliciting some answers to the following questions:
The research material included a survey questionnaire distributed among the persons actively involved in the schooling of junior judoists. The following research methods were employed in the project: the critical path analysis and computer calculations, which took account of the equations formulated by Jaczynowski (1978).
13) THE VALUE OF COACHES’ VALUES: A CROSS-CULTURAL SURVEY
Rebecca D. RAY*, Laila ANSARI, Roberta BERNHARD*, David MATSUMOTO*, Stanislaw STERKOWICZ**
*San Francisco State University, USA, **Cracow Academy of Physical Education, Poland
Sports teach important developmental, psychological and physical lessons to young athletes. In addition to the particular physical agility and control taught, there are also valuable psychological lessons such as morality, teamwork, individual effort, and discipline. Due to these psychological components, it is important to examine values, attitudes, and beliefs in sports. Whereas in school, teachers are the main socializers, so to in sports, it is the coach who is the main socialization agent using one on one instruction, group pep talks, scoldings, and encouragement from the sides lines. It is the coaches, who are the most instrumental person in the lives of athletes in every sport worldwide. So it seems logical that in investigating the psychological components of sports, one would investigate the contribution of the coach to the psychological development of athletes. The coach passes on the values of the sport, but also his or her values also. Yet, when we looked at the literature for studies on coaches’ values, there were none.
The present research surveyed Judo coaches from two countries (United States and Poland). A demographic sheet collected information such as their age, country, rank in Judo, information about how many students they taught and how often, and what they liked and disliked about teaching Judo. A 54 item survey of values was constructed containing many specifically traditional Judo values and also more broadly Japanese values. A factor analysis was performed on the value scores producing 20 factors. A two way ANOVA revealed that there was a country by values effect meaning that there were value differences between the countries. Follow-up analyses identified the values that the coaches differed on and ranked the values for each of the countries. Despite the fact that these individuals come from very different countries, by devoting a large portion of their life to Judo, they have many values in common and differ on only a few in their degree of valuing or not valuing the item. While not all the items are traditional Judo values, many of the top values are consistent with some of the traditional values that Judo sought to teach.
These findings suggest that even in a sport with a rich tradition, the coaches of different countries are affected by their culture resulting on different emphasis on different values. Future studies could look at the connection between coach values from Japan and those of other countries and the connection between the coach’s values and those of the athletes.
14) PHYSIOTHERAPY PROCEDURE WITH REGARD OF THE TYPE OF BODY INJURIES IN JUDO
Arkadiusz Piekarz*, Grzegorz Glab*, Stanislaw Sterkowicz**
*Institute of Rehabilitation **Department of Combat Sports Academy of Physical Education in Cracow, Poland
The purpose of this work was to present the physiotherapy procedure, supplementary to the methods that are most often used in treatment of sportsmen. 547 accidents of 6468 contestants were considered in four-year retrospective analysis (research4.htm). The age and the most frequent body injuries were considered. Fractures of the shoulder girdle and the upper limb bones prevailed in younger athletes, and distortions of knee and dislocations of elbow joint in juniors and seniors (Sterkowicz 1996). After analysis, the injuries were divided into two groups: group I – distortions and dislocations of joints, group II – fractures of bones. According to present knowledge, physiotherapy methods that can be alternatively used were presented. The treatment consisted of three stages: basic, directed and special rehabilitation. Rehabilitation should be coordinated with training period; it can accelerate the recovery of athlete and help to come back faster to training. The key – part of physiotherapist in a team taking care of sportsman was emphasized in the paper. Strong co-operation physiotherapist with coach is underlined.