Article 27 – Prohibited acts and penalties

The Prohibited Acts are divided into ‘Slight’ infringements (Shido) and ‘Grave’ infringements (Hansoku-make).
SLIGHT INFRINGEMENTS: Will receive a penalty of Shido.
GRAVE INFRINGEMENTS: Will receive a penalty of direct Hansoku-make.
The Referee shall award a penalty of Shido or Hansoku-make depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The awarding of a second or subsequent Shido automatically reflects on the opponent’s technical score. The previous score corresponding to the earlier penalty is removed and the next higher score shall be recorded immediately.
The awarding of a direct Hansoku-make means the contestant is disqualified and excluded from the tournament, and the contest ends according to the Article 19 (d). (See Appendix).
Whenever a Referee awards a penalty, he should demonstrate with a simple gesture the reason for the penalty.
A penalty can be awarded after the announcement of Sore-made for any prohibited act done during the time allotted for the contest or, in some exceptional situations, for serious acts done after the signal to end the contest, as long as the decision has not been given.

SHIDO (Slight Infringements Group)

1) To intentionally avoid taking Kumikata in order to prevent action in the contest.
2) To adopt in a standing position, after Kumikata, an excessively defensive posture. (Generally more than 5 seconds).
3) To make an action designed to give the impression of an attack but which clearly shows that there was no intent to throw the opponent. (False attack).
4) To stand, both feet completely within the danger zone unless – beginning an attack, executing an attack, countering the opponent’s attack or defending against the opponent’s attack. (Generally more than 5 seconds)
5) In a standing position, to continually hold the opponent’s sleeve end(s) for a defensive purpose (Generally more than 5 seconds) or to grasp by ” screwing up” the sleeve end(s).
6) In a standing position, to continually keep the opponent’s fingers of one or both hands interlocked, in order to prevent action in the contest. (Generally more than 5 seconds).
7) To intentionally disarrange his own Judogi or to untie or retie the belt or the trousers without the Referee’s permission.
8) To pull the opponent down in order to start Newaza unless in accordance with Article 16. Where one contestant pulls his opponent down into Newaza not in accordance with Article 16 and his opponent does not take advantage of this to continue into Newaza, the Referee shall announce Mate, temporarily stopping the contest and give Shido to the contestant who has infringed Article 16.
9) To insert a finger or fingers inside the opponent’s sleeve or bottom of his trousers.
10) In a standing position to take any grip other than a “normal” grip without attacking. (Generally more than 5 seconds.) “Normal” Kumikata is taking hold the right side of the opponent’s Judogi, be it the sleeve, collar, chest area, top of the shoulder or back with the left hand and with the right hand the left side of the opponent’s Judogi be it the sleeve, collar, chest area, top of the shoulder or back and always above the belt. A contestant should not be penalised for holding with an abnormal grip if the situation has been brought about by his opponent ducking his head beneath the holder’s arm. However, if a contestant is continually “ducking” this way, the Referee should give consideration as to whether he is adopting an “excessively defensive posture” (2). If a contestant continues to take an abnormal Kumikata, the time allowed may be progressively reduced, and even to a “direct penalty” of Shido. Hooking one leg between the opponent’s legs unless simultaneously attempting a throwing technique is not considered to be the normal Kumikata and the contestant must attack within 5 seconds or the contestant will be penalised with “Shido”.
11) In a standing position, before or after Kumikata has been established, not to make any attacking moves. (See Appendix Non-Combativity). “Non-combativity” may be taken to exist when in general, for approximately 25 seconds; there have been no attacking actions on the part of one or both contestants. Non-combativity should not be awarded when there are no attacking actions, if the Referee considers that the contestant is genuinely looking for the opportunity to attack.
12) To hold the opponent’s sleeve end(s) between the thumb and the fingers (“Pistol” grip).
13) To hold the opponent’s sleeve end(s) by folding it over (“Pocket” grip).
14) From a standing position, to take hold of the opponent’s foot/feet, leg(s) or trouser leg(s) with the hand(s), unless simultaneously attempting a throwing technique.
15) To encircle the end of the belt or jacket around any part of the opponent’s body. The act of “encircling” means that the belt or jacket must completely encircle. Using the belt or jacket as an “anchor” for a grip (without encircling), e.g. to trap the opponent’s arm, should not be penalised.
16) To take the Judogi in the mouth. (either his own or his opponent’s Judogi).
17) To put a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent’s face. The face means the area within the line bordered by the forehead, the front of the ears and the jaw-line.
18) To put a foot or a leg in the opponent’s belt, collar or lapel.
19) To apply Shime-waza using the bottom of the jacket or belt, or using only the fingers.
20) To go outside the contest area or intentionally force the opponent to go outside the contest area either in standing position or in Newaza. (See Article 9 – “Exceptions”).
21) To apply leg scissors to the opponent’s trunk (Dojime), neck or head. (Scissor with crossed feet, while stretching out the legs).
22) To kick with the knee or foot, the hand or arm of the opponent, in order to make him release his grip, or to kick the opponent’s leg or ankle without applying any technique.
23) To bend back the opponent’s finger(s) in order to break his grip.

HANSOKU-MAKE (Grave Infringements Group)

24) To apply Kawazu-gake. (To throw the opponent by winding one leg around the opponent’s leg, while facing more or less in the same direction as the opponent and falling backwards onto him). Even if the thrower twists/turns during the throwing action, this should still be considered “Kawazu-gake” and be penalised. Techniques such as Osoto-gari, Ouchi-gari, and Uchi-mata where the foot/leg is entwined with opponent’s leg will be permitted and should be scored.
25) To apply Kansetsu-waza anywhere other than to the elbow joint.
26) To lift off the Tatami the opponent who is lying on the Tatami and to drive him back onto the Tatami.
27) To reap the opponents supporting leg from the inside when the opponent is applying a technique such as Harai-goshi etc.
28) To disregard the Referee’s instructions.
29) To make unnecessary calls, remarks or gestures derogatory to the opponent or Referee during the contest.
30) To make any action which may endanger or injure the opponent especially the opponent’s neck or spinal vertebrae, or may be against the spirit of Judo.
31) To fall directly to the Tatami while applying or attempting to apply techniques such as Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame. (To attempt such throws as Harai-goshi, Uchi-mata, etc., with only one hand gripping the opponent’s lapel from a position resembling Ude-hishigi- waki-gatame (in which the wrist of the opponent is trapped beneath the thrower’s armpit) and deliberately falling, face down, onto the Tatami is likely to cause injury and will be penalised. No intent to throw an opponent cleanly onto his back is a dangerous action and will be treated in the same way as Ude-hishigi-waki-gatame.)
32) To “dive” head first, onto the Tatami by bending forward and downward while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as Uchimata, Harai-goshi, etc. or to fall directly backwards while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as Kata-guruma whether standing or kneeling.
33) To intentionally fall backwards when the other contestant is clinging to his back and when either contestant has control of the other’s movement.
34) To wear a hard or metallic object (covered or not).

Referees and Judges are authorised to award penalties according to the “intent” or situation and in the best interest of the sport. Should the Referee decide to penalise the contestant(s), (except in the case of Sono-mama in Newaza) he shall temporarily stop the contest by announcing Mate, return the contestants to their starting positions and announce the penalty while pointing to the contestant(s) who committed the prohibited act. Before awarding Hansoku-make, the Referee must consult with the Judges and make his decision in accordance with the “majority of three” rule. Where both contestants infringe the rules at the same time, each should be awarded a penalty according to the seriousness of the infringement. Where both contestants have been given three (3) Shidos and subsequently each receives a further penalty, they should both be declared Hansoku-make. A penalty in Newaza should be applied in the same manner as in Osaekomi (Article 26 Appendix, the 2nd and 3rd paragraphs).

On the scoreboard, the repeated Shido will be accumulated and converted to the opponent’s technical score. On the scoreboard repeated Shidos, would become:
2 Shidos = a Yuko to the opponent
3 Shidos = a Waza-ari to the opponent
4 Shidos = Hansoku-make = Ippon to the opponent
When a contestant has repeated slight infringements and is to be penalised with his fourth (4th) Shido the Referee, after consultation with Judges, shall give the contestant “Hansoku-make”, that is to say that the 4th Shido is not announced as “Shido”, but shall be announced directly as “Hansoku-make”. The contest ends according to the Article 19 (d).

O Soto Gari