Table of contents
1. Competition Area
3. Judo Uniform (Judogi)
5. Referees and Officials
6. Position & Function of Referee
7. Position & Function of Judges
9. Location (areas valid)
10. Contest Duration
11. Time Out/Sonomama/Matte
12. Time Signal-audible
13. Osaekomi time
14. Technique coinciding with Time signal
15. Start of Contest
16. Entry into Ne-Wasa
17. Application of Matte
19. End of Contest
21. Waza-ari awasete Ippon
27. Prohibited acts and Penalties
28. Default and Withdrawal
29. Injury, Illness or Accident
30. Situation not covered by the Rules
* Bowing Guide
* Glossary of Japanese Terms
ARTICLE 1 - Competition Area
The competition area shall be a minimum of 14m x 14m and a maximum of 16m x 16m and shall be covered by tatami or similarly acceptable material, generally green in colour.
The competition area shall be divided into two zones. The demarcation between these two zones shall be called the danger zone and shall be indicated by a red area, approximately 1m wide, forming part of or attached to the contest area, parallel to the four sides of the competition area.
The area within and including the danger zone, shall be called the contest area and shall always be of a minimum of 8m x 8m or a maximum of 10m x 10m. The area outside the danger zone shall be called the safety area and shall be 3m wide.
An adhesive blue tape and a white tape, approximately 10cm wide and 50cm long shall be fixed on the centre of the contest area at a distance of 4m apart, to indicate the positions at which the contestants must start and end the contest. The blue tape shall be to the referee's right and the white to his left.
The competition area must be fixed to a resilient floor or platform (see Appendix).
Where two or more adjoining competition areas are used, a common safety area of a minimum of 4m is necessary.
A free zone, a minimum of 50cm must be maintained around the competition area.
Note: Where the Rules refer to blue judogi, blue tape, blue flags, blue scoreboard etc, it is permissible for tournament organisers to specify that both contestants will wear a white judogi, the first contestant called will wear a red belt in addition to the grade belt, the second contestant called will wear a white belt in addition to the grade belt, and the equipment (flags, tape, scoreboard, etc) will be red instead of blue.
Appendix Article 1 - Competition Area
For Olympic Games, World Championships, Continental and IJF events, the competition area, generally, must be maximum size.
Generally measuring one metre by two metres, made of pressed straw or, more frequently, from pressed foam.
They must be firm under foot and have the property of absorbing shock during Ukemi, and must not be slippery nor too rough.
The elements making up the surface for the competition must be aligned without space in between, be smooth of surface and fixed in such a way that they will not be displaced.
The platform is optional and must be made of solid wood, while still having a certain resilience and measuring approximately 18 metres on the side without ever going beyond 50 cm in height.
Article 2 - Equipment
a) Chairs and Flags (Judges)
Two lightweight chairs must be placed on the safety area at diagonally opposite corners of the contest area and in a position so as not to obstruct the judges, Commission members and recorders view of the scoreboard. One blue and one white flag shall be placed in a holster affixed to each chair.
For each competition area there shall be two (2) scoreboards, that indicate the scores horizontally, not exceeding 90 centimetres in height and 2 metres in width, placed outside the competition area where they can be easily seen by the referees, Commission members, officials and spectators.
The penalty points shall be immediately converted to scores and recorded on the scoreboards. However, the boards must be manufactured with a device that will record the penalties received by the contestants. (see Appendix Example)
There shall be two crosses in blue and white respectively on the top of the scoreboard for 1st and 2nd examinations of the doctors. (see Articles 8 and 29 Appendix)
Whenever electronic scoreboards are used, manual scoreboards must be available as a backup (see Appendix).
c) Timing clocks
There shall be timing clocks as follows:
Contest duration - one
Osaekomi - two
In reserve - one
Whenever electronic timing clocks are used, manual timing clocks must also be used for control (see Appendix).
d) Flags (time keepers)
Timekeepers shall use flags as follows;
Yellow - contest stop
Green - osaekomi duration
It will not be necessary to use the yellow and green flags whenever an electronic display clock showing contest duration and osaekomi duration is in use. However, these flags must be available in reserve.
e) Time signal
There shall be a bell or similar audible device to indicate to the referee the end of the time allotted for the contest.
f) Blue and white judogi
The contestant shall wear a blue or white judogi. (The first competitor called wears the blue judogi, the second wears the white.)
Appendix Article 2 - Equipment
Position of recorders/scorers/timekeepers
The scorers and timekeepers must be facing the referee and well in view of the recorders.
Distance of spectators
In general the spectators should not be admitted closer than 3 metres to the surface of the competition (or platform).
Timing clocks and score boards
The time clocks must be accessible to those persons responsible for maintaining their accuracy, and they must be checked regularly for accuracy at the start and during the competition. The scoreboards must correspond to the demands set out by the IJF and should be at the disposal of the referees as needed.
The manual timing clocks and scoreboards must be used simultaneously with the electronic equipment, in case of failure of the electronic equipment.
Blue has scored waza-ari and also been penalised chui.
White receives yuko immediately as a result of blue's chui.
Blue and white crosses
The background of the display area should be green and the crosses blue and white to correspond with the judogi colour of the contestants.
Article 3 – Judo uniform (judogi)
The contestants shall wear judogi complying with the following conditions:
a) Strongly made in cotton or similar material, in good condition (without rent or
tear). The material must not be so thick or so hard as to prevent the opponent from taking a grip.
b) Blue in colour for the first contestant and white or off white for the second
c) Acceptable markings:
i) National Olympic abbreviation (on back of jacket).
ii) National Emblem (on left breast of jacket). Maximum size 100 square
iii) Manufacturer's trade mark (on bottom-front of jacket and on bottom
front of left leg of the trousers). Maximum size 25 square centimetres.
iv) Shoulder markings (from collar - across shoulder - down arm - both
sides of jacket). Maximum length 25 centimetres and maximum width 5 centimetres.
v) Indication of the placing (1st, 2nd, 3rd) at the Olympic Games or World
Championships, in an area of 6cm x 10cm at the bottom front left side of the jacket.
vi) The contestant's name may be worn on the belt, uniform lower front
top of the jacket and upper front top of the pants and must be a maximum of 3cm x 10cm. Also the contestant's name or abbreviation may be placed (printed or embroidered), above the National Olympic abbreviation, but in no case in a position to prevent an opponent from grasping the back of the jacket. The size of the letters is a maximum of 7cm high and the length of the name is a maximum of 30 cm. This rectangular area of 7 x 30 cm must be located at 3 cm under the collar of the jacket and the back identification must be fixed at 4 cm under this area.
d) The jacket shall be long enough to cover the thighs and shall at a minimum
reach to the fists when the arms are fully extended downwards at the sides of the body. The body of the jacket shall be worn with the left side crossed over the right and shall be wide enough to have a minimum overlap of 20 centimetres at the level of the bottom of the rib-cage. The sleeves of the jacket must reach to the wrist joint as a maximum and 5 centimetres above the wrist joint as a minimum. A space of 10-15 centimetres shall exist between the sleeve and the arm (inclusive of bandages), on the entire length of the sleeve.
e) The trousers, free of any markings, shall be long enough to cover the legs
and shall at a maximum reach to the ankle joint and at a minimum 5 centimetres above the ankle joint. A space of 10-15 centimetres shall exist between the trouser leg and the leg (inclusive of bandages) on the whole length of the trouser leg.
f) A strong belt, 4 to 5cm wide, whose colour corresponds to the grade, shall
be worn over the jacket at waist level and tied with a square knot tight enough to prevent the jacket from being too loose and long enough to go twice around the waist and leave 20 to 30cm protruding from each side of the knot when tied.
g) Female contestants shall wear under the jacket either:-
i) be worn inside the trousers, or:-
ii) a plain white or off-white leotard with short sleeves.
Appendix Article 3 – Judo uniform (judogi)
If the judogi of a contestant does not comply with this article, the referee must order the contestant to change in the shortest possible time, into a judogi which does comply with the article.
The contestants' spare judogi should be brought by the coaches to their chair at the edge of the competition area.
To ensure that the sleeves of the contestant's jacket are the required length, the referee shall direct the contestant to raise both arms, fully extended forward at shoulder level, when making the control.
Article 4 – Hygiene
(a) The judogi shall be clean, generally dry and without unpleasant odour.
(b) The nails of the feet and hands shall be cut short.
(c) The personal hygiene of the contestant shall be of a high standard.
(d) Long hair shall be tied so as to avoid causing inconvenience to the other
Appendix Article 4 - Hygiene
Any contestant who will not comply with the requirements of Articles 3 and 4 will be refused the right to compete and the opponent shall win the contest by kiken-gachi, according to the rule of "majority of three" (see Article 28).
Article 5 – Referees and officials
Generally, the contest shall be conducted by one referee and two judges under the supervision of the Refereeing Commission. The referee and judges shall be assisted by contest recorders and time keepers.
Appendix Article 5 - Referees and officials
The timekeepers, list writers and recorders as well as other technical assistants must be of a minimum of 21 years age, have a minimum of three years experience as national referees and a good knowledge of the Refereeing Rules.
The Organising Committee must ensure that they have been thoroughly trained as technical officials. There shall be a minimum of two timekeepers; one to register the real contest time and one to specialise in osaekomi time.If possible there should be a third person to supervise the two timekeepers to avoid any errors due to mistakes or forgetfulness.
The overall timekeeper (real contest time) starts the clock on hearing the announcements hajime or yoshi and stops it on hearing the announcements matte or sonomama.
The osaekomi timekeeper starts the clock on hearing osaekomi, stops it on sonomama, restarts it on hearing yoshi. Either on hearing toketa or matte he stops the clock and indicates the number of seconds elapsed to the referee or on expiry of the time for osaekomi (25 seconds where there has been no previous score or 20 seconds where the person being held in the osaekomi has had a waza-ari or keikoku awarded against him) indicates the end of the osaekomi by means of an audible signal.
The osaekomi timekeeper shall raise a green flag during the contest whenever he has stopped the clock on hearing sonomama and shall lower the flag when he has restarted the clock on hearing yoshi.
The overall timekeeper (real contest time) shall raise a yellow flag whenever he has stopped the clock on hearing the announcement and seeing the signal of matte or sono-mama and shall lower the flag when he restarts the clock on hearing hajime or yoshi.
When the time allowed for the contest has expired the timekeepers shall notify the referee of this fact by a clearly audible signal (see Articles 10, 11 and 12 of the Refereeing Rules).
The contest recorder must ensure that he is completely informed of the current signs and signals in use to indicate the result of a contest. In addition to the above persons there shall be a list-writer to record the overall course of the contests.If electronic systems are used the procedure will be the same as described above. Nevertheless it shall be ensured that manual recording devices are available.
In addition to the above persons there shall be a list-writer to record the overall course of the contests.
If electronic systems are used the procedure will be the same as described above. Nevertheless it shall be ensured that manual recording devices are available.
Article 6 – Position and function of referee
The referee shall generally stay within the contest area. He shall conduct the contest and administer the judgment. He shall ensure that the decisions are correctly recorded.
Appendix Article 6 - Position and function of referee
The referee should ensure that all is correct e.g. competition area, equipment, uniforms, hygiene, officials etc. before starting the contest.
While announcing an opinion and making the appropriate gesture, the referee should bring at least one judge within his line of sight in order to be immediately aware of any differing opinion. However the referee must make sure not to lose sight of the contestants¡¯ continuing action at any time.
In cases such as when both contestants are in ne-waza and facing outwards, the referee may observe the action from the safety area.
Before officiating at a contest, the referees and judges should familiarise themselves with the sound of the bell or means of indicating the end of the contest on their particular mat area. When assuming control of a competition area the referee and judges should ensure that the mat surface is clean and in good condition, that there are no gaps between the mats, that the judges chairs are in position and that the contestants comply with Articles 3 and 4 of the Contest Rules. The referees should ensure that there are no spectators, supporters or photographers in a position to cause a nuisance or risk injury to the contestants.
Article 7 - Position and function of judges
The judges must assist the referee and sit opposite each other at two corners outside the contest area. Each judge must indicate his opinion by making the appropriate official gesture, whenever his opinion differs from that of the referee on a technical evaluation or for a penalty announced by the referee.
Should the referee express an opinion of a higher degree than that of the two judges on a technical result or a penalty, he must adjust his evaluation to that of the judge having expressed the higher evaluation.
Should the referee express an opinion of a lower degree than that of the two judges on a technical result or penalty, he must adjust his evaluation to that of the judge having expressed the lower evaluation.
Should one judge express an opinion of a higher degree and the other judge an opinion of a lower degree than that of the referee, the referee maintains his opinion.
Should both judges express a judgment different from that of the referee, and the referee not have noticed their signals, they should stand up, maintaining their gesture until the referee is informed of this and rectifies his evaluation. Should, after an appreciable time (a few seconds) the referee not have noticed the standing judges, the judge who is closest to the referee must immediately approach him and inform him of the majority opinion.
The judge must, by the appropriate gesture, express his opinion about the validity of any action on the edge or outside of the contest area.
Any discussion is possible and necessary only if the referee or one of the judges has clearly seen something which has not been visible to the other two, and which could change the decision.
The judges must also observe that the scores recorded by the contest recorder are correct with the scores announced by the referee.
Should a contestant temporarily leave the competition area after the contest has been started, for a reason considered necessary by the referee, a judge must obligatorily go with the contestant to see that no anomaly occurs. This authorisation shall be given only for exceptional circumstances (to change judogi in case of non-conformity with norms).
Appendix Article 7 - Position and function of judges
The referee and judges should leave the competition area during presentations or any lengthy delay in the program.
The judge should sit with both feet apart, outside the contest area and should place his hands, palms facing down, on his inner thighs.
Should a judge note that the scoreboard is incorrect he should draw the referee's attention to the mistake.
A judge must be quick to remove himself and his chair should his position endanger the contestants.
A judge should not pre-empt the referee's signal for a score.
In an action on the edge, the judge should make the gesture immediately to show if the action is IN or OUT.
Should a contestant have to change any part of the uniform outside the competition area, and the judge to accompany the contestant is not of the same sex, an official designated by the Refereeing Director shall substitute for the judge and accompany the contestant.
If his competition area is not in use and there is a contest in progress on an adjacent competition area, the judge should remove the chair if it could endanger the contestants.
Article 8 - Gestures
a) The Referee
The referee shall make gestures as indicated below when taking the
i) Ippon: shall raise one arm with palm of hand facing forward, high above the head.
ii) Waza-ari: shall raise one of his arms with palm of hand facing
downwards, sideways, to shoulder height.
iii) Waza-ari-awasete-ippon: First waza-ari, then ippon gesture.
iv) Yuko: shall raise one of his arms, with palm of hand facing
downwards, 45 degrees from his body.
v) Koka: shall raise one of his arms bent with thumb towards the
shoulder and elbow at the side of the body.
vi) Osaekomi: shall point his arm out from his body down towards the
contestants while facing the contestants and bending his body towards them.
vii) Osaekomi-toketa: shall raise one of his arms to the front and wave it
from right to left quickly two or three times while bending the body towards the contestants.
viii) Hiki-wake: shall raise one of his hands high in the air and bring it
down to the front of his body (with thumb edge up) and hold it there for a while.
ix) Matte: shall raise one of his hands to shoulder height and with his
arm approximately parallel to the tatami, shall display the flattened palm of his hand (fingers up) to the timekeeper.
x) Sonomama: shall bend forward and touch both contestants with the
palms of his hands.
xi) Yoshi: shall firmly touch both contestants with the palms of his hands
and bring pressure on them.
xii) To indicate the cancellation of an expressed opinion: shall repeat with
one hand the same gesture while raising the other hand above the head to the front and wave it from right to left two or three times.
xiii) Hantei: In preparation of calling hantei, the referee shall raise both
hands forward at 45? with the correct flag in each hand, then at the announcement of hantei he shall raise the flag high above his head to indicate his opinion.
xiv) Kachi (to indicate the winner of a contest): shall raise one hand, palm
in, above shoulder height towards the winner.
xv) To direct the contestant(s) to re-adjust the judogi: cross left hand over
right, palms facing inwards, at belt height.
xvi) To indicate the recording of a medical examination by the doctor:
signal with hand opened towards the contestant and with the other hand, raise the index finger towards the recorder for first examination and the index and the middle-finger for the second examination (Article 29 Appendix).
xvii) Free Touch: in case of a minor incident (nose bleed etc.), signal with
one hand, opened, palm upwards, towards the contestant.
xviii) Free examination: signal with both hands, opened, palms upwards,
towards the contestant.
xix) To award a penalty (shido, chui, keikoku, hansoku-make): point
towards the contestant with the index finger extended from a closed fist.
xx) Non-combativity: rotate, with a forward motion, the forearms at chest
height then point with the forefinger at the contestant.
xxi) False attack: extend both arms forward, with hands closed and then make a downward action with both hands.
xxii) Danger zone penalty: point towards danger zone, whilst raising the
other hand above head, forward, with fingers opened, then point towards contestant to be penalised.
Appendix Article 8 – Gestures
When it is not clearly apparent, the referee may after the official signal, point to the blue or white tape (starting position) to indicate which contestant scored or was penalised.
To indicate to the contestant/s that he may sit cross-legged at the starting position, if a lengthy delay in the contest is envisaged, the referee should signal towards the starting position with an open hand, palm upwards.
Yuko and waza-ari signals should start with the arm across the chest, then sideways to the correct finishing position.
Koka, yuko, waza-ari signals should be maintained while moving to ensure that the score is clearly visible to the judges. However, care should be taken when turning to keep the contestants within view.
Should both contestants be given a penalty, the referee should make the proper gesture and point alternately at both contestants (left forefinger for contestant on his left and right forefinger for contestant on his right).
Should a rectification gesture be required, it shall be done as quickly as possible after the annulment gesture.
There should be no announcement made when canceling a score.
All gestures should be maintained for 3 to 5 seconds.
To indicate the winner, the referee will return to his position at start of the contest, take one step forward, indicate the winner then take one step back.
The following gesture will be used as a trial at the Junior World Championship in Cali, Colombia in 1998, replacing the current gestures (xxi) and (xxii). The result of the trial will be evaluated by the Refereeing Commission and a decision recommended to the Executive Committee.
Negative Judo (prohibited acts i to ix): cross the wrists in front of the
body at about shoulder height with the hands extended, then point to the contestant to be penalised.
b) The Judges
i) To indicate that he considers a contestant making a throwing
technique has stayed within the contest area, the judge shall raise one of his hands up in the air and bring it down to shoulder height with his thumb upwards and arm extended along the boundary line of the contest area and momentarily hold it there.
ii) To indicate that in his opinion one of the contestants is out of the c
contest area, the judge shall raise one of his hands to shoulder height with his thumb upwards and arm extended along the boundary line of the contest area and wave it from right to left, or vice versa, several times.
iii) To indicate that in his opinion a score, penalty or opinion given by the
referee according to Article 8 (a) has no value, the judge will raise his hand above his head and wave it from right to left two or three times.
iv) To indicate that his opinion differs from that of the referee, the judge(s)
will make one of the signals of Article 8 (a).
v) In hantei situations the judges must hold the flags in the proper
hands. After the referee has announced hantei the judges shall immediately raise either the blue or white flag above their heads in order to indicate which contestant they consider merits the decision.
vi) When the judges wish the referee to announce matte in ne-waza (eg.
no progress), they should signal by raising both hands to shoulder height with palms facing upwards.
Article 9 – Location (Areas valid)
The contest shall be fought in the contest area. Any technique applied when one or both contestants are outside the contest area shall not be recognised. For example if one contestant shall have even one of his feet, hands or knees outside the contest area while standing or more than half of his body outside the contest area while doing sutemi-waza, he shall be considered as being outside the contest area.
a) When one contestant throws his opponent outside the contest area, but
himself stays within the contest area long enough for the effectiveness of the technique to be clearly apparent, the technique shall be recognised.
When a throw is started with both contestants inside the contest area, but
during the throw, the contestant being thrown moves outside the contest area, the action may be considered for point scoring purposes if the throwing action continues uninterrupted and the contestant executing the throw stays within the contest area long enough for the effectiveness of the action to be clearly apparent.
b) In ne-waza the action is valid and may continue so long as either contestant
has any part of the body touching the contest area.
c) If during the course of an attack such as o-uchi-gari or ko-uchi-gari the foot or
leg of the thrower leaves the contest area and moves over the mat of the safety area, the action should be considered valid for scoring purposes so long as the thrower does not place any weight upon the foot or leg while it is outside the contest area.
Appendix Article 9 – Location (Areas valid)
In the case of Osaekomi on the edge - should the one part of the contestant still touching the contest area, become airborne (i.e. it is raised up and loses contact with the mat) - the referee must announce Matte.
In the case where Tori becomes airborne (i.e. he is in the air and no longer in contact with the mat) outside the contest area during the execution of a throw, the technique can only be considered valid for scoring purposes, if Uke lands before any part of Tori touches outside the contest area.
As the red danger zone is part of the contest area, any contestant whose feet are still touching the red danger zone in the standing position should be considered as being within the contest area.
When performing sutemi-waza, a throw is considered valid if the thrower has one half or more of his body within the contest area. (Therefore, neither foot of the thrower should leave the contest area before his back or hips touch the mat.)
If the thrower falls outside the contest area whilst making a throw, the action will only be considered for scoring purposes where the opponent's body touches the mat before the thrower's. Therefore if a thrower's knee, hand or any other part of his body touches the safety area before his opponent's any result obtained thereby should be disregarded.
Once the contest has started the contestants may only leave the competition area if given permission to do so by the referee. Permission will only be given in very exceptional circumstances, such as the necessity to change a judogi which does not comply with Article 3 or which has become damaged or soiled.
Article 10 – Duration of contest
For the World Championships and Olympic Games, the time duration of contests is:
- Men: 5 minutes real contest tim
- Women: 4 minutes real contest time
Any contestant is entitled to rest between contests for a period of 10 minutes.
Appendix Article 10 – Duration of contest
The duration of the contests and the contest form shall be determined according to the rules of the tournament.
The referee should be aware of the duration of the contest before coming onto the competition area.
Article 11 – Time out
The time elapsed between the announcement of matte and hajime and between sono-mama and yoshi by the referee shall not count as part of the duration of the contest.
Appendix Article 11 – Time-out
Article 12 – Time signal
The end of the time allotted for the contest shall be indicated to the referee by the ringing of a bell or other similar audible signal.
Appendix Article 12 – Time signal
When using several competition areas at the same time - the use of VARYING audible devices is required.
The time signal must be sufficiently audible to be heard over the noise of the spectators.
Appendix Article 13 – Osaekomi time
Ippon: total of 25 seconds.
Waza-ari: 20 seconds or more but less than 25 seconds.
Yuko: 15 seconds or more but less than 20 seconds.
Koka: 10 seconds or more but less than 15 seconds.
An osaekomi of less than 10 seconds will be counted the same as an attack.
Appendix Article 13 – Osaekomi time
When osaekomi is announced simultaneously with the bell signal, the time allotted for the contest shall be extended until either ippon (or equivalence) is announced or the referee announces Toketa or Matte.
Article 14 – Technique coinciding with time signal
Any immediate result of a technique started simultaneously with the time signal shall be valid.
In the case of osaekomi announced simultaneously with the time signal, the time allotted for the contest shall be extended until either ippon is scored or the referee announces toketa or matte.
Appendix Article 14 – Technique coinciding with time signal
Any technique applied after the ringing of the bell or other device to indicate the expiry of the time of the contest shall not be valid, even if the referee has not yet announced sore-made.
Although a throwing technique may be applied simultaneously with the bell, if the referee decides that it will not be effective immediately, he should announce sore-made.
Article 15 – Start of contest
Before the start of each contest the referee and judges shall stand together inside the limits of the competition area (and centred) and shall bow to joseki before taking their places. To leave the competition area, they also must bow towards joseki.
Contestants must bow onto and off the competition area and contestarea at the start and end of each contest. After bowing onto the contestarea the contestants move forward to their respective marks and must bowsimultaneously towards each other and take a step forward. Once the contestis over and the referee has award the result, the contestants simultaneouslytake a step back and must bow to each other. (see Bowing Guide).
The contest shall always begin in the standing position.
Only the members of the Refereeing Commission may interrupt the contest. (See Article 17)
Appendix Article 15 – Start of contest nal
The referee and judges should always be in position to start the contest before the arrival on the contest area of the contestants. The referee should stand in the middle, two metres back from the line between where the contestants start. He should be facing the time-keeping table.
All standing bows by the contestants should be at an angle of 30 degrees as measured at the waist. If the contestants do not bow, the referee will request the contestants to do so. (see Bowing Guide).
Article 16 – Entry into ne-waza
The contestants shall be able to change from standing position to ne-waza in the following cases, but should the employment of the technique not be continuous, the referee orders both contestants to resume the standing position:
a) When a contestant, after obtaining some result by a throwing technique
changes without interruption into ne-waza and takes the offensive.
b) When one of the contestants falls to the ground, following the unsuccessful
application of a throwing technique, the other may take advantage of his opponent's unbalanced position to take him to the ground.
c) When one contestant obtains some considerable effect by applying a
shimewaza or kansetsu-waza in the standing position and then changes without interruption to ne-waza.
d) When one contestant takes his opponent down into ne-waza by the
particularly skilful application of a movement which does not qualify as a throwing technique.
e) In any other case where one contestant may fall down or be about to fall
down, not covered by the preceding sub-sections of this article, the other contestant may take advantage of his opponent's position to go into ne-waza.
Appendix Article 16 – Entry into ne-waza
When one contestant pulls his opponent down into ne-waza not in accordance with Article 16 and his opponent does not take advantage of this to continue into ne-waza, the referee shall announce matte, stop the contest and award shido to the contestant who has infringed Article 27 (viii).
When one contestant pulls his opponent down into ne-waza not in accordance with the rules of Article 16 and his opponent takes advantage of this to continue into ne-waza, the contest should be allowed to continue but the referee should award shido to the contestant who has infringed Article 27 (viii).
Article 17 – Application of matte
The referee shall announce matte in order to stop the contest temporarily in the following cases and to recommence the contest shall announce hajime:
a) When one or both of the contestants go outside the contest area. (see
"Exceptions" under Article 9).
b) When one or both of the contestants perform one of the prohibited acts.
c) When one or both of the contestants are injured or taken ill.
d) When it is necessary for one or both of the contestants to adjust their
e) When during ne-waza there is no apparent progress.
f) When one contestant regains a standing or semi-standing position from ne-
waza bearing his opponent on his back.
g) When one contestant remains in, or from ne-waza regains a standing
position and lifts his opponent who is on his back with his leg(s) around any part of the standing contestant, clear of the mat.
h) When a contestant performs or attempts to perform kansetsu-waza or
shime-waza from the standing position and the result is not immediately apparent.
i) When in any other case that the referee deems it necessary to do so.
j) When the referee and judges or Refereeing Commission wishes to confer.
Appendix Article 17 – Application of matte
The referee having announced matte, must take care to maintain the contestants within his view, in case they do not hear the matte announced and continue fighting.
The referee should not call matte to stop the contestant(s) going outside the contest area, unless the situation is considered dangerous.
The referee should not announce matte when a contestant who has escaped e.g. osaekomi, shime-waza, kansetsu-waza appears in need of or calls for a rest.
The referee should announce matte when a contestant who is face down on the mat, with his opponent clinging to his back, succeeds in rising to a half standing position, with his hands clear of the mat, indicating a loss of control by the opponent.
Should the referee call matte in error during ne-waza and the contestants therefore separate, the referee and judges may, if possible, and in accordance with the "majority of three" rule, replace the contestants into as close to their original position as possible and restart the contest, if so doing will rectify an injustice to one of the contestants.
After the announcement of matte, the contestants must quickly return to the position in which they started the contest.
When the referee has announced matte, the contestant(s) must either stand if being spoken to or adjusting their uniform, or may sit if a lengthy delay is envisaged. Only when receiving medical attention should a contestant be permitted to adopt any other position.
The referee may announce matte if a contestant is injured or indisposed and may ask the contestant's accredited doctor to come on the competition area and proceed with a quick examination.
The referee may announce matte if a contestant who is injured indicates to the referee that he requires an examination. This must be undertaken as quickly as possible (Article 29).
The referee may announce matte if the Refereeing Commission, on the request of the accredited team doctor authorises the doctor to undertake a quick examination of an injured contestant (Article 29).
Article 18 – Sonomama
In any case where the referee wishes to temporarily stop the contest e.g. to address one or both contestants without causing a change in their positions, or to award a penalty so that the contestant who is not penalised does not lose his position of advantage, he shall announce sonomama. To recommence the contest he shall announce yoshi. Sono-mama can only be applied in ne-waza.
Appendix Article 18 – Sonomama
Whenever the referee announces Sonomama, he should be careful that there is no change in the positions or grips of either contestant.
If during ne-waza a contestant shows sign of injury, the referee may announce sonomama if necessary then return the contestants to the positions they held before the announcement of sonomama - and then announce yoshi.
Article 19 – End of contest
The referee shall announce soremade and end the contest:
a) When one contestant scores ippon or waza-ari-awasete-ippon (Articles 20
b) In the case of sogo-gachi (Article 22).
c) In the case of fusen-gachi or kiken-gachi (Article 28).
d) In the case of hansoku-make (Article 27).
e) When one contestant cannot continue due to injury (Article 29).
f) When the time allotted to the contest has expired (see hantei). Upon the
announcement of soremade by the referee, the contestants shall return to their starting positions.
The referee will award the contest as follows:
i) Where one contestant has scored ippon or equivalent, he shall be
declared the winner.
ii) In the case where both contestants score ippon or sogo-gachi
simultaneously the referee shall announce hiki-wake and the contestants shall have the right to fight a new contest immediately. Should only one contestant exercise his right to fight the contest again, and the other contestant declines, the contestant who wishes to fight again shall be declared the winner by kiken-gachi.
iii) In the case where both contestants are awarded hansoku make
simultaneously, or where one contestant is awarded hansoku make and is simultaneously awarded sogo-gachi, the referee shall announce sore-made and neither contestant shall continue to the next stage of the competition.
iv) Where there has been no score of ippon or equivalent, the winner
shall be declared on the basis of: one waza-ari prevails over any number of yuko, one yuko prevails over any number of koka.
v) Where the recorded scores indicate no scores or are exactly the same
under each of the headings (waza-ari, yuko, koka), the referee shall gesture and announce hantei.
Before the announcement of hantei, the referee and judges must have
assessed which contestant they consider to be the winner, taking into account the recognisable difference in the attitude during the contest or the skill and effectiveness of techniques.
The referee shall add his opinion to that indicated by the two judges
and shall declare the result according to the majority of all three opinions.
vi) The decision of hiki-wake shall be given, when there is no advantage
on the scoreboard and where it is impossible to judge the superiority of either contestant, in accordance with this article, within the time allotted for the contest.
After the referee has indicated the result of the contest, the contestants shall take one step backwards to their respective blue and white tapes, make a standing bow and leave the contest area.
Once the referee has announced the result of the contest to the contestants it will not be possible for the referee to change this decision after the referee and judges have left the competition area.
Should the referee award the contest to the wrong contestant in error, the two judges must ensure that he changes this erroneous decision before the referee and judges leave the competition area.
All actions and decisions taken in accordance with the majority of three rule by the referee and judges shall be final and without appeal.
Appendix Article 19 – End of contest
Having announced Soremade, the referee should still keep the contestants within his view, in case they do not hear his announcement and continue fighting.
The referee should direct the contestants to adjust their judogi, if necessary, prior to indicating the result.
Article 20 – Ippon
The referee shall announce ippon when in his opinion an applied technique corresponds to the following criteria:
a) When a contestant with control throws the other contestant largely on his
back with considerable force and speed.
b) When a contestant holds with osaekomi-waza the other contestant, who is
unable to get away for 25 seconds after the announcement of osaekomi.
c) When a contestant gives up by tapping twice or more with his hand or foot or
says maitta generally as a result of a grappling technique, shime-waza or kansetsu-waza.
d) When a contestant is incapacitated by the effect of a shime-waza or
Equivalence: Should one contestant be penalised hansoku make the other contestant shall be declared the winner.
Simultaneous ippon - See Article 19 (f) (ii).
Appendix Article 20 – Ippon
Simultaneous techniques: - when both contestants fall to the mat after what appears to be simultaneous attacks, and the referee and judges cannot judge which technique dominated - there should be no score awarded.
Should the referee announce Ippon during ne-waza in error and the contestants therefore separate, the referee and judges may, if possible, and in accordance with the "majority of three" rule, replace the contestants into as close to their original positions as possible and restart the contest, if so doing will rectify an injustice to one of the contestants.
If one of the contestants deliberately makes a "bridge" (head and heels in contact with the mat) after having been thrown - although he may have avoided the necessary criteria for ippon, the referee may nonetheless award ippon or any other score he considers the technique warrants, in order to discourage this action.
Using kansetsu-waza in order to throw the opponent will not be considered for point scoring purposes.
Note: For Olympic Games, World Championships, Continental and IJF events the rule will be applied as stated. For National events the organisers are authorised to make such provisions as are appropriate for the safety of the contestants at the level to which the tournament applies. For example in lower grade competition the organisers may authorise the referees to award ippon when the effect of a technique is sufficiently apparent, or for children's events may disallow shime-waza and kansetsu-waza altogether.
Article 21 – Waza-Ari-awasete-ippon
Should one contestant gain a second waza-ari in the contest, (see Article 23) the referee shall announce waza-ari awasete ippon.
Appendix Article 21 – Waza-Ari-awasete-ippon
Article 22 – Sogo-gachi (compound win)
The referee shall announce sogo-gachi in the following cases:
(a) Where one contestant has gained a waza-ari and his opponent
subsequently receives a penalty of keikoku (see Article 27 (c).)
(b) Where one contestant, whose opponent has already received a penalty of
keikoku is subsequently himself awarded a waza-ari.
Simultaneous sogo-gachi - See Article 19 (f) (ii).
Appendix Article 22 – Sogo-gachi (compound win)
Article 23 – Waza-ari
The referee shall announce waza-ari when in his opinion the applied technique corresponds to the following criteria:
(a) When a contestant with control throws the other contestant, but the technique
is partially lacking in one of the four elements necessary for ippon (see Article 20 (a) and Appendix).
(b) When a contestant holds with osaekomi-waza the other contestant who is
unable to get away for 20 seconds or more, but less than 25 seconds.
Equivalence: Should one contestant have been penalised keikoku, the other contestant shall receive waza-ari immediately.
Appendix Article 23 – Waza-ari
Although the criteria for ippon - of largely on the back with speed and force may be evident in a throw such as tomoe-nage, if there is an interruption to the throw, waza-ari is the maximum score that should be awarded.
Article 24 – Yuko
The referee shall announce yuko when in his opinion the applied technique corresponds to the following criteria:
(a) When a contestant with control throws the other contestant, but the technique
is partially lacking in two of the other three elements necessary for ippon:
i) Partially lacking in the element of "largely on the back" and is also
partially lacking in one of the other two elements of "speed" or "force".
ii) Largely on the back but partially lacking in both the other two elements
of "speed" and "force".
(b) When a contestant holds with osaekomi-waza the other contestant who is
unable to get away for 15 seconds or more but less than 20 seconds.
Equivalence: Should one contestant have been penalised chui the other
contestant shall receive yuko immediately.
Appendix Article 24 – Yuko
Regardless of how many yukos are announced, no amount will be considered equal to a waza-ari. The total number announced will be recorded.
Article 25 – Koka
The referee shall announce koka when in his opinion the applied technique corresponds to the following criteria:
(a) When a contestant with control throws the other contestant onto one
shoulder, or the thigh(s), or buttocks with speed and force.
(b) When a contestant holds with osaekomi-waza the other contestant who is
unable to get away for 10 seconds or more but less than 15 seconds.
Equivalence: Should one contestant have been penalised shido the other contestant shall receive koka immediately.
Appendix Article 25 – Koka
Regardless of how many kokas are announced, no amount will be considered being equal to a yuko or waza-ari. The total number announced will be recorded.
Throwing an opponent on the front of his body, knee(s), hand(s), or elbow(s) will only be counted as the same as any other attack. Similarly an osaekomi of up to nine seconds will be counted as an attack.
Article 26 – Osaekomi-waza
The referee shall announce osaekomi when in his opinion the applied technique corresponds with the following criteria:
(a) The contestant being held must be controlled by his opponent and must
have his back, both shoulders or one shoulder in contact with the mat.
(b) The control can be made from the side, from the rear or from on top.
(c) The contestant applying the hold must not have his leg(s) or body controlled
by his opponent's legs.
(d) At least one contestant has any part of his body touching the contest area at
the announcement of osaekomi.
(e) The contestant applying the hold must have their body in either the kesa or
the shiho position, ie similar to the techniques kesa-gatame or kami-shiho-gatame.
Appendix Article 26 – Osaekomi-waza
Should a contestant who is controlling his opponent with an osaekomi, change without losing control, into another osaekomi, the osaekomi time will continue until the announcement of ippon (or waza-ari or equivalent in the case of waza-ari-awasete-ippon) or toketa or matte.
When osaekomi is being applied, if it is the contestant who is in an advantageous position who commits an infringement meriting a penalty, the referee shall announce matte, return the contestants to their starting positions, award the penalty (and any score from the osaekomi), then recommence the contest by announcing hajime.
When osaekomi is being applied, if it is the contestant who is in a disadvantageous position who commits an infringement meriting a penalty, the referee shall announce sonomama, award the penalty, then recommence the contest by touching both contestants and announcing yoshi. However, should the penalty to be awarded be hansoku-make, the referee shall act in accordance with Article 27, Appendix, 3rd & 4th paragraph.
If both judges agree that an osaekomi exists, but the referee has not announced osaekomi - they should indicate with osaekomi signal and, by the "majority of three" rule, the referee shall announce osaekomi immediately.
The referee shall announce matte in the case of "osaekomi on the edge", when the one part of the contestant still touching the contest area, becomes airborne (i.e. it is raised up and loses contact with tatami).
Toketa should be announced if, during osaekomi, the contestant being held succeeds in "scissoring" the other contestant's leg, either from above or from below the leg.
If in ne-waza after the announcement of sonomama the penalty to be given is hansoku-make, matte should be announced, hansoku-make awarded and the contest ended with sore-made.
In situations where uke's back is no longer in contact with the mat, (eg. "bridging"), but tori maintains control, the osaekomi shall continue.
Article 27 – Prohibited acts and penalties
The division of infringements into four groups is intended as a guide, to give clearer understanding to all, of the relative penalties normally awarded for committing the applicable prohibited act.
Penalties are not cumulative. Each penalty must be awarded at its own value. The awarding of any second or subsequent penalty automatically cancels an earlier penalty. Whenever a contestant has already been penalised, any succeeding penalties for that contestant must always be awarded at least in the next higher value than his existing penalty.
Whenever a referee awards a penalty, he should demonstrate with a simple action the reason for the penalty.
A penalty can be awarded after the announcement of soremade for any prohibited act done during the time allotted for the contest or, in some exceptional situations, for serious acts done after the signal to end the contest, as long as the decision has not been given.
Prohibited acts and corresponding penalties:
(a) Shido is given to any contestant who has committed a slight infringement:
i) To intentionally avoid taking hold in order to prevent action in the
ii) To adopt in a standing position an excessively defensive posture. (Generally more than 5 seconds)
iii) To make an action designed to give the impression of an attack but
which clearly shows that there was no intent to throw the opponent. (FALSE ATTACK)
iv) To stand, both feet completely within the danger zone UNLESS -
beginning an attack, executing an attack, countering the opponent's attack or defending against the opponent's attack. (Generally more than 5 seconds)
v) In a standing position, to continually hold the opponent's sleeve
end(s) for a defensive purpose (Generally more than 5 seconds) or to grasp by "screwing up" the sleeve.
vi) In a standing position, to continually keep the opponent's fingers of
one or both hands interlocked, in order to prevent action in the contest. (Generally more than 5 seconds)
vii) To intentionally disarrange his own judogi or to untie or retie the belt or
the trousers without the referee's permission.
viii) To pull the opponent down in order to start ne-waza unless in
accordance with Article 16.
ix) To insert a finger or fingers inside the opponent's sleeve or bottom of
his trousers, or to grasp by "screwing up" his sleeve.
"Normal" gripping is in general to hold with the left hand any part of the right side of the opponent's jacket above the belt and with the right hand any part of the left side of the opponent's jacket above the belt.
x) In a standing position to take any grip other than a "normal" grip
without attacking. (Generally within 3 to 5 seconds)
xi) In a standing position, after kumi-kata has been established, not to
make any attacking moves. (See Appendix NON-COMBATIVITY)
xii) From a standing position, to take hold of the opponent's foot/feet,
leg(s) or trouser leg(s) with the hand(s), unless simultaneously attempting a throwing technique.
xiii) To encircle the end of the belt or jacket around any part of the
xiv) To take the judogi in the mouth.
xv) To put a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent's face.
xvi) To put a foot or a leg in the opponent's belt, collar or lapel.
(b) Chui is awarded to any contestant who has committed a serious
infringement (or having been penalised shido commits a second slight infringement).
xvii) To apply shime-waza using the bottom of the jacket or belt, or using
only the fingers.
xviii) To apply leg scissors to the opponent's trunk (dojime), neck or head.
(scissor with crossed feet, while stretching out the legs).
xix) To kick with the knee or foot, the hand or arm of the opponent, in order to make him release his grip.
xx) To bend back the opponent's finger(s) in order to break his grip.
xxi) From tachi-waza or ne-waza to go outside the contest area or intentionally force the opponent to go outside the contest area. (See Article 9 - "Exceptions")
(c) Keikoku is awarded to any contestant who has committed a grave
infringement (or who having been penalised chui, commits a further slight or serious infringement).
xxii) To attempt to throw the opponent by winding one leg around the
opponent's leg, while facing more or less in the same direction as the opponent and falling backwards onto him (kawazu-gake).
xxiii) To apply kansetsu-waza anywhere other than to the elbow joint.
xxiv) To lift off the mat an opponent who is lying on the mat and to drive him
back onto the mat.
xxv) To reap the opponents supporting leg from the inside when the opponent is applying a technique such as harai-goshi etc.
xxvi) To disregard the referee's instructions.
xxvii) To make unnecessary calls, remarks or gestures derogatory to the opponent or referee during the contest.
(d) Hansoku Make is awarded to any contestant who has committed a very grave infringement (or who having been penalised keikoku, commits a further infringement of any degree).
xxviii) To make any action which may endanger or injure the opponent especially the opponent's neck or spinal vertebrae, or may be against the spirit of Judo.
xxix) To fall directly to the mat while applying or attempting to apply techniques such as waki-gatame.
xxx) To "dive" head first, onto the mat by bending forward and downward while performing or attempting to perform techniques such as uchi-mata, harai-goshi, etc.
xxxi) To intentionally fall backwards when the other contestant is clinging to his back and when either contestant has control of the other's movement.
xxxii) To wear a hard or metallic object (covered or not).
Appendix Article 27 – Prohibited acts and penalties
Referees and judges are authorised to award penalties according to the "intent" or situation and in the best interest of the sport.
Should the referee decide to penalise the contestant(s), (except in the case of sonomama in ne-waza) he shall temporarily stop the contest, return the contestants to their starting positions and announce the penalty while pointing to the contestant(s) who committed the prohibited act.
Before awarding hansoku-make, the referee must consult with the judges and make his decision in accordance with the "majority of three" rule. Where both contestants infringe the rules at the same time, each should be awarded a penalty according to the degree of the infringement. Where both contestants have been awarded keikoku and subsequently each receives a further penalty, they should both be declared hansoku-make. Nonetheless, the officials may make their final decision in this matter in accordance with Article 30 - Situations not covered by the rules.
Keikoku or hansoku-make in ne-waza should be applied in the same manner as in osae-komi (Article 26 Appendix 3rd paragraph).
Where one contestant pulls his opponent down into ne-waza not in accordance with Article 16 and his opponent does not take advantage of this to continue into ne-waza, the referee shall announce matte, temporarily stop the contest and award shido to the contestant who has infringed Article 16.
x) Taking a high grip on the opponent's collar is regarded as "normal" even if the hand is gripping on the opposite side of the opponent's jacket, providing the hand passes behind the opponent's head.
A contestant should not be penalised for holding with an abnormal grip if the situation has been brought about by his opponent ducking his head beneath the holder's arm. However, if a contestant is continually "ducking" this way, the referee should give consideration as to whether he
is adopting an "excessively defensive posture" (ii)
xi) Non-combativity. May be taken to exist when in general, for approximately 25 seconds, there have been no attacking actions on the part of either or both contestants. Non-combativity should not be awarded when there are no attacking actions, if the referee considers that the contestant is genuinely looking for the opportunity to attack.
xiii) The act of "encircling" means that the belt or jacket must completely encircle. Using the belt or jacket as an "anchor" for a grip (without encircling) to say - trap the opponent's arm should not be penalised.
xv) The face means the area within the line bordered by - forehead, in front of the ears and jaw-line.
xxviii) Examples: kani-basami, Combination kansetsu-waza and nage-waza.
xxix) To attempt such throws as harai-goshi, uchi-mata, etc., with only one hand gripping the opponent's lapel from a position resembling waki gatame (in which the wrist of the opponent is trapped beneath the thrower's armpit) and deliberately falling, face down, onto the mat is likely to cause injury and will be penalised. Not intended to throw an opponent cleanly onto his back, such moves are dangerous and will be treated in the same way as waki-gatame.
Article 28 – Default and withdraw
The decision of fusen-gachi shall be given to any contestant whose opponent does not appear for his contest. A contestant who is not at his starting place after three (3) calls at one (1) minute intervals, will forfeit the contest.
The referee must be sure before awarding fusen-gachi that he has received the authority to do so by the Refereeing Commission.
The decision of kiken-gachi shall be given to any contestant whose opponent withdraws from the competition for any reason, during the contest.
Appendix Article 28 – Default and withdraw
Soft contact lens: - In the event that a contestant, during the fight, loses his contact lens and cannot immediately recover it, informing the referee that he cannot continue competing without the contact lens, after consultation with the judges the referee shall give the victory to his opponent by kiken-gachi.
Article 29 – Injury, illness or accident
The decision of kachi or hiki-wake where one contestant is unable to continue because of injury, illness or accident during the contest shall be given by the referee after consultation with the judges according to the following clauses:
i) Where the cause of the injury is attributed to the injured contestant he shall lose the contest.
ii) Where the cause of the injury is attributed to the uninjured contestant the uninjured contestant shall lose the contest.
iii) Where it is impossible to determine the cause of injury to either contestant, the decision of hiki-wake may be given.
Generally, where one contestant is taken sick during a contest and is unable to continue, he shall lose the contest.
Where an accident occurs which is due to an outside influence, the decision of hiki-wake shall be given.
During a contest each contestant has a right to have two (2) medical examinations.
The referee must ensure that the number of times a contest is interrupted for doctor examination is recorded for each contestant. The recorder shall display one cross to indicate the first medical examination and two crosses to indicate the second medical examination.
If the accredited team doctor after an examination of an injured contestant(s), advises the referees that the contestant(s) cannot continue the contest, the referee after consultation with the judges, shall end the contest and indicate the result in accordance with the other provisions of this article.
Should an injury to a contestant(s) be of a nature as serious as to require treatment away from the competition area or should an injury to a contestant(s) require more than two examinations by the accredited team doctor, the referee after consultation with the judges, shall end the contest and indicate the result in accordance with the other provisions of this article.
Should the nature of an injury to a contestant(s) be such that it requires treatment by the accredited doctor on the competition area, the referee after consultation with the judges, shall end the contest and indicate the result in accordance with the other provisions of this article.
If after an injury to one or both of the contestants, the referee and judges are of the opinion that the contest should not continue, the referee shall end the contest and indicate the result in accordance with the other provisions of this article.
Appendix Article 29 – Injury, illness or accident
Generally only one doctor for each contestant is allowed on the competition area. Should a doctor require assistance the referee must first be informed. The coach is never allowed on the competition area. If the doctor¡¯s attendance is to be recorded as a medical examination, the referee will indicate this to the scorekeepers as soon as the doctor reaches the contestant.
Exceptions - Minor injury (See Article 8 (xvii) free touch)
Should a minor incident (nose-bleed, broken nail, etc.) require medical attention, it must be carried out within one minute, with the discretion of the referee.
Note: The doctor may touch the contestant but not examine.
Medical examination (See Article 8 (xvi) medical examination)
Any repeat of the same minor injury, the doctor must be called and a medical examination recorded.
If a contestant requests a doctor for a minor injury, it must be recorded as a medical examination.
If a contestant is accidentally injured, i.e. neither contestant is at fault and the doctor is required for examination, this examination must be recorded.
Note: The doctor may touch the contestant to carry out the examination within one minute, with the discretion of the referee.
Injury - Free examination (See Article 8 (xviii) free examination)
A free medical examination is allowed only when, in the opinion of the referees, the injury was caused by the opponent.
During this examination the doctor may touch and freely examine the contestant and may:
- Apply a bandage if necessary.
- Assist in adjusting a scrotum injury
Note: With the exception of the above situations, if the doctor applies any treatment, the opponent will win by kiken-gachi.
If during the contest uke is injured due to an action by tori and uke cannot continue, the refereeing team should analyse the case and decide according to the rules. Each case is decided on its own merit.
An injury was caused by a forbidden act. After attending to the injury, the doctor informs the referee that the contestant can continue the fight. After consulting with the judges, the referee penalises the opponent.
If after the contest is resumed, the injured contestant cannot continue due to the previous injury, his opponent cannot be further penalised, for the same reason. In that case, the injured contestant will lose the fight.
In the case that a doctor, responsible for a contestant in his fight, clearly realises - especially in case of strangling technique - that there is a serious danger for the health of his contestant, he can go to the edge of the tatami and call upon the referees to immediately stop the contest. The referees have to take all the necessary steps in order to assist the doctor. Such an intervention will consequently mean the loss of the contest and should therefore only be adopted in extreme cases.
Where it is impossible to determine the cause of injury to either contestant, and if no one is responsible, the contestant who can continue wins.
At the IJF Championships, the official team doctor should have a medical degree and must register prior to the competition. He is the only person allowed to sit at the designated area and must be so identified. e.g. wear a red cross arm-band.
When accrediting a doctor for their team, the National Federations must take the responsibility for the actions of their doctors.
The doctors must be informed about the amendments and interpretations of the rules.
A meeting conducted by the IJF Refereeing Director will be organised for the team doctors, prior to any IJF Championships.
Article 30 – Situations not covered by the rules
Where any situation arises which is not covered by these rules, it shall be dealt with and a decision given by the referees after consultation with the Refereeing Commission.
Appendix Article 30 – Situations not covered by the rules
GLOSSARY OF JAPANESE TERMS
Ashi-garami Entangled legs
Dojime Squeeze body with legs
Fusen-gachi Win by default
Harai-goshi Sweeping hip throw
Ippon Full point
Joseki Head table
Judogi Judo uniform
Kami-shiho-gatame A holding technique
Kani-basami A throwing technique
Kansetsu-waza Joint lock
Kawazu-gake A throwing technique
Kesa-gatame A holding technique
Kiken-gachi Win by withdrawal
Koka Minor score
Ko-soto-gari A throwing technique
Ko-uchi-gari A throwing technique
Maitta I give up
Nage-waza Throwing techniques
Osaekomi Hold down
O-uchi-gari A throwing technique
Sogo-gachi Compound win
Sono-mama Do not move
Sore-made That is all
Sutemi-waza Sacrifice techniques
Tachi-waza Standing techniques
Toketa Hold-down broken
Tomoe-nage A throwing technique
Uchi-mata A throwing technique
Waki-gatame An arm-lock technique
Waza-ari Almost Ippon
Waza-ari-Awasete Two waza-ari score Ippon
Yuko Almost waza-ari
The following Bowing Guide is adapted from the I.J.F. Bowing Guide.
A part of the etiquette of Judo, the rei, is a tradition which reflects the respect and discipline that permeates the unique activities of our sport. The guide for bowing, therefore, should be followed in a respectful fashion.
All standing rei should be at an angle of 30 degrees as measured at the waist.
1. Initial Rei – Opening ceremony
1.1 While the contestants are lined up on the competition area, as the last activity of the opening ceremony, all the referees are to be lined up, side by side, in front of the contestants and team officials, facing the joseki.
1.2 Upon the order of kiotsuke, rei, team officials, competitors and referees bow towards the joseki.
1.3 Immediately, the referees make a half turn counter-clockwise facing the contestants and upon the order of rei, all bow towards each other.
1.4 Then, in order and in accordance with the programmed events, the referees, team officials and contestants leave the competition area so the tournament can begin.
2. Final Rei – Closing ceremony
2.1 While the contestants are lined up on the competition area as the last activity of the closing ceremony, the referees are to be lined up, side by side, in front of the contestants, facing the joseki.
2.2 Upon the order of kiotsuke, the referees make a half-turn counter-clockwise facing the contestants and on the order of rei, all bow towards each other.
2.3 Then the referees make a half-turn counter-clockwise facing the joseki and upon the order of rei bow towards joseki.
2.4 After that, in order and in accordance with the programmed events, the referees and contestants leave the competition area, ending the event.
3. At the Beginning of the individual Contest
3.1 Before the first contest of each session of the shiai, the first team of designated referees walk along the outside edge of the competition area in single file (judge/referee/judge) to a centralised position before the contest area and facing the joseki, then step up to the competition area.
3.2 Once in the centralised position on the competition area, standing side by side, the referee and judges bow towards the joseki.
3.3 From there the referee and judges walk forward onto the danger area, now on contest area, where they bow for a second time toward the joseki.
3.4 While in the danger area the referee and judges bow towards each other. The referee takes a step backwards, while the judges turn to face each other for the bow.
3.5 Immediately the referee and judges take their positions. The judge that reaches the chair first remains standing in front of the chair waiting for the other judge and together they sit down in unison. This same seating procedure should be followed after each conference.
3.6 For the first contest of each session of a shiai, the referee is to ensure the first two contestants comply with the provisions of sub-section 9.2.
3.7 The first team of referees should leave the competition area following the bowing procedure in section 6.
3.8 The judge with the shorter distance should walk slower and the other judge should walk faster so that both judges meet the referee at the same time for the bow.
4. Following Referee and Judges
4.1 After the first team of officials designated for the first contest, all subsequent groups of referees and judges, before taking their positions, should follow the bowing procedure as established in 3.1, 3.2 and 3.5.
4.2 Each subsequent team of referees, with the exception of the last team of each session, are to leave the competition area follow the ceremony outlined in section 6.
5. Exchange of function between the referee and judge
5.1 Following a contest, once the result has been announced and the contestants have left the contest area, if the referee is required to exchange positions with a judge, both referees should approach each other within the red danger area. Once facing each other they should bow before taking their new position. Passing each other, the new referee walks on the inside, taking the shorter route, to the hajime position.
6. Referee team leaving the competition area
6.1 Following a contest, once the result has been announced and the contestants have left the contest area, if the referee and judges are to leave the contest area, they should walk towards the outer edge of the competition area. Facing the joseki, from a centralised position, with the referee in the centre, in unison they should bow towards the joseki and then leave the competition area.
7. Referee team at the end of the Shiai
7.1 Following the last contest of each session and after the result has been announced, in addition to having complied with sub-article 9.6, the referee and judges should walk towards the red danger area and once inside, facing the joseki side by side, with the referee in the centre, they should bow towards the joseki.
7.2 While in the danger area, the referee takes a step backwards and the judges turn to face each other to bow, and finally the three bow towards each other.
7.3 The referee and judges then walk towards the border of the competition area to a centralised position, facing the joseki, with the referee in the centre, they bow towards joseki and then leave the competition area
8. Contestants entering and leaving the competition area
8.1 Upon entering and leaving the competition area, the contestants should bow towards the joseki.
9. Tachi Rei between contestants
Contestants are required to adhere to the guidelines in this bowing guide and the IJF Refereeing Rules. Contestants who do not bow in accordance with these guidelines will be requested to do so. Those that refuse will be reported to the IJF Sports Director or Tournament Director. Under the authority of the Directors of the event the contestant will be disqualified from further competition and in the case of a medal contest, will be stripped of the medal and/or placement.
9.1 The contestants should move forward to the centralised position on the edge of the contest area and bow, then the contestants move forward onto the contest area to their respective marks and bow.
9.2 The first two contestants of each day of a tournament, before their contest, should comply with the following:
a) Standing face to face behind their corresponding marks, at the directions of the referee, the contestants should turn towards the joseki.
b) Upon the order of rei, they must bow.
c) The contestants should turn and face each other again to follow 9.3 of these guidelines
9.3 The two contestants, standing behind their corresponding marks and without requiring any orders must bow simultaneously towards each other, take a step forward and stand in natural standing position while waiting for the referee to order hajime.
9.4 Once the contest is over and the referee has ordered soremade, the contestants should stand in front of their corresponding marks to await the result. The contestants should at this point have their judogi in order.
9.5 The referee steps forward one step, awards the result and steps back one step, following this announcement the contestants simultaneously take a step back and must bow to each other.
9.6 The last two contestants of each day of a tournament, after their contest has ended, must comply with the following:
a) After following 9.4 and 9.5, and upon the direction of the referee to face joseki, the contestants must follow the dispositions of (a) and (b) of 9.2, then 9.7.
9.7 The contestants move back to the centralised position at the edge of the contest area and must bow, then leave the competition area complying with the provisions of article 8.
10. Team competitors
10.1 Each contest by two teams is considered as a session of a shiai.
10.2 Before the beginning of each team contest the referee and judges should follow 3.1, 3.2, 3.3 and 3.4 then 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7 and finally 3.5 of these guidelines.
10.3 At the end of each team contest, the referee and judges should follow 10.9, 10.10, 10.11 and 10.12 of these guidelines. Then they should walk to the danger area to a centralised position facing the joseki and bow in unison. After this bow they continue with 7.2 and 7.3 of these guidelines.
10.4 Before each team contest starts, with the referee and judges lined up next to each other, with the referee in the centre and the three facing towards the joseki, the two teams bow together onto the contest area. They then move forward to their mark, facing each other, the referee orders with both hands straight out and hands facing up, the contestants to face the joseki. Upon this gesture, the contestants then turn to face the joseki remaining in single file.
10.5 The referee then orders rei and the contestants bow.
10.6 Immediately the referee directs the competitors to face each other.
10.7 Again the referee orders rei, the teams bow towards each other and move back to the edge of the contest area and bow. It being understood that the contestants bow once more at the edge of the contest area before leaving completely.
10.8 For each individual contest the contestants should follow 9.1, 9.4, 9.5, 9.6 and 9.7 of these guidelines.
10.9 After all individual contests are finished the two teams line up inside the contest area on their mark facing each other. The referee and judges, with the referee in the centre, line up next to each other facing the joseki and lined up teams. The referee takes a step forward and announces the result.
10.10 The referee takes a step back, returning to the original position, and orders rei. The teams bow towards each other.
10.11 Then the referee with the gesture as in 10.4, directs the contestants to turn toward the joseki, remaining in single file.
10.12 Immediately the referee orders rei and in unison the contestants bow toward the joseki.
10.13 After this the contestants should move back to the edge of the contest area and bow. It being understood that before completely leaving the competition area, the contestants should bow again towards the joseki, from the edge of the competition area.
10.14 At that time, in the danger area, the referee and judges bow towards the joseki, bow towards each other and, following the procedure as established in section 7, walk towards the border of the competition area to a centralised position, facing the joseki with the referee in the centre, they bow towards it and then leave the competition area.
The bowing etiquette sets Judo uniquely apart from other international sports. The gestures are of respect, appreciation and courtesy. The referee and judges have a fundamental role in upholding this uniqueness by ensuring that bowing is done according to these guidelines.
Last Updated on Tuesday, 02 August 2011 02:43